Download and read online The Nature of Computation in PDF and EPUB Computational complexity is one of the most beautiful fields of modern mathematics, and it is increasingly relevant to other sciences ranging from physics to biology. But this beauty is often buried underneath layers of unnecessary formalism, and exciting recent results like interactive proofs, phase transitions, and quantum computing are usually considered too advanced for the typical student. This book bridges these gaps by explaining the deep ideas of theoretical computer science in a clear and enjoyable fashion, making them accessible to non-computer scientists and to computer scientists who finally want to appreciate their field from a new point of view. The authors start with a lucid and playful explanation of the P vs. NP problem, explaining why it is so fundamental, and so hard to resolve. They then lead the reader through the complexity of mazes and games; optimization in theory and practice; randomized algorithms, interactive proofs, and pseudorandomness; Markov chains and phase transitions; and the outer reaches of quantum computing. At every turn, they use a minimum of formalism, providing explanations that are both deep and accessible. The book is intended for graduate and undergraduate students, scientists from other areas who have long wanted to understand this subject, and experts who want to fall in love with this field all over again.
Download and read online The Nature of Computation in PDF and EPUB The boundary between physics and computer science has become a hotbed of interdisciplinary collaboration. In this book the authors introduce the reader to the fundamental concepts of computational complexity and give in-depth explorations of the major interfaces between computer science and physics.
Download and read online The Nature of Computation in PDF and EPUB
Download and read online The Nature of Computation Logic Algorithms Applications in PDF and EPUB This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 9th Conference on Computability in Europe, CiE 2013, held in Milan, Italy, in July 2013. The 48 revised papers presented together with 1 invited lecture and 2 tutorials were carefully reviewed and selected with an acceptance rate of under 31,7%. Both the conference series and the association promote the development of computability-related science, ranging over mathematics, computer science and applications in various natural and engineering sciences such as physics and biology, and also including the promotion of related non-scientific fields such as philosophy and history of computing.
Download and read online The Nature of Computation in PDF and EPUB
Download and read online Introduction to the Theory of Computation in PDF and EPUB Now you can clearly present even the most complex computational theory topics to your students with Sipser's distinct, market-leading INTRODUCTION TO THE THEORY OF COMPUTATION, 3E. The number one choice for today's computational theory course, this highly anticipated revision retains the unmatched clarity and thorough coverage that make it a leading text for upper-level undergraduate and introductory graduate students. This edition continues author Michael Sipser's well-known, approachable style with timely revisions, additional exercises, and more memorable examples in key areas. A new first-of-its-kind theoretical treatment of deterministic context-free languages is ideal for a better understanding of parsing and LR(k) grammars. This edition's refined presentation ensures a trusted accuracy and clarity that make the challenging study of computational theory accessible and intuitive to students while maintaining the subject's rigor and formalism. Readers gain a solid understanding of the fundamental mathematical properties of computer hardware, software, and applications with a blend of practical and philosophical coverage and mathematical treatments, including advanced theorems and proofs. INTRODUCTION TO THE THEORY OF COMPUTATION, 3E's comprehensive coverage makes this an ideal ongoing reference tool for those studying theoretical computing. Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.
Download and read online Biophysics of Computation in PDF and EPUB Neural network research often builds on the fiction that neurons are simple linear threshold units, completely neglecting the highly dynamic and complex nature of synapses, dendrites, and voltage-dependent ionic currents. Biophysics of Computation: Information Processing in Single Neurons challenges this notion, using richly detailed experimental and theoretical findings from cellular biophysics to explain the repertoire of computational functions available to single neurons. The author shows how individual nerve cells can multiply, integrate, or delay synaptic inputs and how information can be encoded in the voltage across the membrane, in the intracellular calcium concentration, or in the timing of individual spikes.Key topics covered include the linear cable equation; cable theory as applied to passive dendritic trees and dendritic spines; chemical and electrical synapses and how to treat them from a computational point of view; nonlinear interactions of synaptic input in passive and active dendritic trees; the Hodgkin-Huxley model of action potential generation and propagation; phase space analysis; linking stochastic ionic channels to membrane-dependent currents; calcium and potassium currents and their role in information processing; the role of diffusion, buffering and binding of calcium, and other messenger systems in information processing and storage; short- and long-term models of synaptic plasticity; simplified models of single cells; stochastic aspects of neuronal firing; the nature of the neuronal code; and unconventional models of sub-cellular computation.Biophysics of Computation: Information Processing in Single Neurons serves as an ideal text for advanced undergraduate and graduate courses in cellular biophysics, computational neuroscience, and neural networks, and will appeal to students and professionals in neuroscience, electrical and computer engineering, and physics.
Download and read online In Pursuit of the Traveling Salesman in PDF and EPUB Covers the history, applications, theory, and computation of the traveling salesman problem right up to state-of-the-art solution machinery.
Download and read online Theory of Computation in PDF and EPUB Learn the skills and acquire the intuition to assess the theoretical limitations of computer programming Offering an accessible approach to the topic, Theory of Computation focuses on the metatheory of computing and the theoretical boundaries between what various computational models can do and not do—from the most general model, the URM (Unbounded Register Machines), to the finite automaton. A wealth of programming-like examples and easy-to-follow explanations build the general theory gradually, which guides readers through the modeling and mathematical analysis of computational phenomena and provides insights on what makes things tick and also what restrains the ability of computational processes. Recognizing the importance of acquired practical experience, the book begins with the metatheory of general purpose computer programs, using URMs as a straightforward, technology-independent model of modern high-level programming languages while also exploring the restrictions of the URM language. Once readers gain an understanding of computability theory—including the primitive recursive functions—the author presents automata and languages, covering the regular and context-free languages as well as the machines that recognize these languages. Several advanced topics such as reducibilities, the recursion theorem, complexity theory, and Cook's theorem are also discussed. Features of the book include: A review of basic discrete mathematics, covering logic and induction while omitting specialized combinatorial topics A thorough development of the modeling and mathematical analysis of computational phenomena, providing a solid foundation of un-computability The connection between un-computability and un-provability: Gödel's first incompleteness theorem The book provides numerous examples of specific URMs as well as other programming languages including Loop Programs, FA (Deterministic Finite Automata), NFA (Nondeterministic Finite Automata), and PDA (Pushdown Automata). Exercises at the end of each chapter allow readers to test their comprehension of the presented material, and an extensive bibliography suggests resources for further study. Assuming only a basic understanding of general computer programming and discrete mathematics, Theory of Computation serves as a valuable book for courses on theory of computation at the upper-undergraduate level. The book also serves as an excellent resource for programmers and computing professionals wishing to understand the theoretical limitations of their craft.
Download and read online The Nature of Statistical Learning Theory in PDF and EPUB The aim of this book is to discuss the fundamental ideas which lie behind the statistical theory of learning and generalization. It considers learning from the general point of view of function estimation based on empirical data. Omitting proofs and technical details, the author concentrates on discussing the main results of learning theory and their connections to fundamental problems in statistics. These include: - the general setting of learning problems and the general model of minimizing the risk functional from empirical data - a comprehensive analysis of the empirical risk minimization principle and shows how this allows for the construction of necessary and sufficient conditions for consistency - non-asymptotic bounds for the risk achieved using the empirical risk minimization principle - principles for controlling the generalization ability of learning machines using small sample sizes - introducing a new type of universal learning machine that controls the generalization ability.
Download and read online A Computable Universe in PDF and EPUB This volume discusses the foundations of computation in relation to nature. It focuses on two main questions: What is computation? and How does nature compute?
Download and read online Limits of Computation in PDF and EPUB Limits of Computation: An Introduction to the Undecidable and the Intractable offers a gentle introduction to the theory of computational complexity. It explains the difficulties of computation, addressing problems that have no algorithm at all and problems that cannot be solved efficiently. The book enables readers to understand: What does it mean for a problem to be unsolvable or to be NP-complete? What is meant by a computation and what is a general model of a computer? What does it mean for an algorithm to exist and what kinds of problems have no algorithm? What problems have algorithms but the algorithm may take centuries to finish? Developed from the authors’ course on computational complexity theory, the text is suitable for advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students without a strong background in theoretical computer science. Each chapter presents the fundamentals, examples, complete proofs of theorems, and a wide range of exercises.
Download and read online Information Physics and Computation in PDF and EPUB A very active field of research is emerging at the frontier of statistical physics, theoretical computer science/discrete mathematics, and coding/information theory. This book sets up a common language and pool of concepts, accessible to students and researchers from each of these fields.
Download and read online The Engine of Complexity in PDF and EPUB The concepts of evolution and complexity theory have become part of the intellectual ether permeating the life sciences, the social and behavioral sciences, and more recently, management science and economics. In this new title, John Mayfield elegantly synthesizes core concepts from across disciplines to offer a new approach to understanding how evolution works and how complex organisms, structures, organizations, and social orders can and do arise based on information theory and computational science. This is a big picture book intended for the intellectually adventuresome. While not deeply technical or mathematical in style, the text challenges readers and rewards them with a nuanced understanding of evolution and complexity that offers consistent, durable, and coherent explanations for major aspects of our life experiences. Numerous examples throughout the book illustrate evolution and complexity formation in action and highlight the core function of computation lying at the heart of the book.
Download and read online Physical Computation in PDF and EPUB Computation permeates our world, but a satisfactory philosophical theory of what it is has been lacking. Gualtiero Piccinini presents a mechanistic account of what makes a physical system a computing system. He argues that computation does not entail representation or information-processing, although information-processing entails computation.