Download and read online The Early Mathematical Manuscripts of Leibniz in PDF and EPUB Leibniz's own accounts of his work, plus critical and historical notes and essays, include his "Historia et Origio Calculi Differentialis," manuscripts of the period 1673-77, and essays by C. I. Gerhardt.
Download and read online The Early Mathematical Manuscripts of Leibniz Translated from the Latin Texts Published by Carl Immanuel Gerhardt with Critical and Historical Notes in PDF and EPUB
Download and read online Witches Scientists Philosophers Essays and Lectures in PDF and EPUB Robert E. Butts (1928-1997) was a philosopher and historian of science whose central concerns were the distinction between the rational and the irrational. He viewed scientific rationality as our major defence against the various conditions that encourage witch hunts and similar outbursts of irrationality, with all their attendant pain and terror. Butts saw himself as a pragmatic realist, combining what he took to be the best aspects of logical empiricism with a historically informed pragmatism, deeply appreciative of the methods of science, trying to describe a kind of rationality essential in the struggle to preserve human values. This volume gathers previously unpublished essays and lectures with some previously published, thematically related essays. It includes essays and lectures on philosophical aspects of the European witch hunt, on scientific rationality and methodology, and on the relationships between science and philosophy exhibited in the writings of such historically significant figures as Leibniz, D'Alembert, Hume, Kant, Carnap and Kuhn.
Download and read online Sherlock Holmes in Babylon in PDF and EPUB Collection of essays on the history of mathematics by distinguished authorities.
Download and read online Leibniz and the Kabbalah in PDF and EPUB The general view of scholars is that the Kabbalah had no meaningful influence on Leibniz's thought. } But on the basis of new evidence I am convinced that the question must be reopened. The Kabbalah did influence Leibniz, and a recognition of this will lead to both a better understanding of the supposed "quirkiness,,2 of Leibniz's philosophy and an appreciation ofthe Kabbalah as an integral but hitherto ignored factor in the emergence of the modem secular and scientifically oriented world. During the past twenty years there has been increasing willingness to recognize the important ways in which mystical and occult thinking contributed to the development of science and the emergence 3 of toleration. However, the Kabbalah, particularly the Lurianic Kabbalah with its monistic vitalism and optimistic philosophy of perfectionism and universal salvation, has not yet been integrated into the new historiography, although it richly deserves to be. On the basis of manuscripts in libraries at Hanover and Wolfenbiittel, it is clear that Leibniz's relationship with Francis Mercury van Helmont (1614- 1698) and Christian Knorr von Rosenroth (1636-1689), the two leading Christian Kabbalists of the period, was much closer than previously imagined and that his direct knowledge of their writings, especially the collection of 4 kabbalistic texts they published in the Kabbala Denudata, was far more detailed than most scholars have realized. During 1688 Leibniz spent more than a month at Sulzbach with von Rosenroth.
Download and read online Leibniz New Essays on Human Understanding in PDF and EPUB A classic edition, newly revised, of Leibniz's great discussion of Locke.
Download and read online Leibniz What Kind of Rationalist in PDF and EPUB Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz was an outstanding contributor to many fields of human knowledge. The historiography of philosophy has tagged him as a “rationalist”. But what does this exactly mean? Is he a “rationalist” in the same sense in Mathematics and Politics, in Physics and Jurisprudence, in Metaphysics and Theology, in Logic and Linguistics, in Technology and Medicine, in Epistemology and Ethics? What are the most significant features of his “rationalism”, whatever it is? For the first time an outstanding group of Leibniz researchers, some acknowledged as leading scholars, others in the beginning of a promising career, who specialize in the most significant areas of Leibniz’s contributions to human thought and action, were requested to spell out the nature of his rationalism in each of these areas, with a view to provide a comprehensive picture of what it amounts to, both in its general drive and in its specific features and eventual inner tensions. The chapters of the book are the result of intense discussion in the course of an international conference focused on the title question of this book, and were selected in view of their contribution to this topic. They are clustered in thematically organized parts. No effort has been made to hide the controversies underlying the different interpretations of Leibniz’s “rationalism” – in each particular domain and as a whole. On the contrary, the editor firmly believes that only through a variety of conflicting interpretive perspectives can the multi-faceted nature of an oeuvre of such a magnitude and variety as Leibniz’s be brought to light and understood as it deserves.
Download and read online Philosophical Papers and Letters in PDF and EPUB The selections contained in these volumes from the papers and letters of Leibniz are intended to serve the student in two ways: first, by providing a more adequate and balanced conception of the full range and penetration of Leibniz's creative intellectual powers; second, by inviting a fresher approach to his intellectual growth and a clearer perception of the internal strains in his thinking, through a chronological arrangement. Much confusion has arisen in the past through a neglect of the develop ment of Leibniz's ideas, and Couturat's impressive plea, in his edition of the Opuscu/es et fragments (p. xii), for such an arrangement is valid even for incomplete editions. The beginning student will do well, however, to read the maturer writings of Parts II, III, and IV first, leaving Part I, from a period too largely neglected by Leibniz criticism, for a later study of the still obscure sources and motives of his thought. The Introduction aims primarily to provide cultural orientation and an exposition of the structure and the underlying assumptions of the philosophical system rather than a critical evaluation. I hope that together with the notes and the Index, it will provide those aids to the understanding which the originality of Leibniz's scientific, ethical, and metaphysical efforts deserve.
Download and read online Philosophers at War in PDF and EPUB A blow-by-blow account of the celebrated controversy over the invention of the calculus.
Download and read online Infinitesimal Differences in PDF and EPUB The development of the calculus during the 17th century was successful in mathematical practice, but raised questions about the nature of infinitesimals: were they real or rather fictitious? This collection of essays, by scholars from Canada, the US, Germany, Japan and Switzerland, gives a comprehensive study of the controversies over the nature and status of the infinitesimal. Aside from Leibniz, the scholars considered are Hobbes, Wallis, Newton, Bernoulli, Hermann, and Nieuwentijt. The collection also contains newly discovered marginalia of Leibniz to the writings of Hobbes.
Download and read online Mathematical Manuscripts of Karl Marx in PDF and EPUB
Download and read online The Tangled Origins of the Leibnizian Calculus in PDF and EPUB 1. Evolution or revolution in mathematics -- 2. Issues in seventeenth century mathematics -- 3. Isaac Barrow: a foil to Leibniz -- 4. A young central European polymath -- 5. First steps in mathematics -- 6. The creation of calculus -- 7. Logic -- 8. The universal characteristic -- 9. The baroque cultural context -- 10. Epilogue -- 11. Some concluding remarks on mathematical change -- Appendices.
Download and read online The History of the Calculus and Its Conceptual Development in PDF and EPUB Fluent description of the development of both the integral and differential calculus — its early beginnings in antiquity, medieval contributions, and a consideration of Newton and Leibniz.
Download and read online The Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy in PDF and EPUB
Download and read online The Origins of Infinitesimal Calculus in PDF and EPUB The Origins of Infinitesimal Calculus focuses on the evolution, development, and applications of infinitesimal calculus. The publication first ponders on Greek mathematics, transition to Western Europe, and some center of gravity determinations in the later 16th century. Discussions focus on the growth of kinematics in the West, latitude of forms, influence of Aristotle, axiomatization of Greek mathematics, theory of proportion and means, method of exhaustion, discovery method of Archimedes, and curves, normals, tangents, and curvature. The manuscript then examines infinitesimals and indivisibles in the early 17th century and further advances in France and Italy. Topics include the link between differential and integral processes, concept of tangent, first investigations of the cycloid, and arithmetization of integration methods. The book reviews the infinitesimal methods in England and Low Countries and rectification of arcs. The publication is a vital source of information for historians, mathematicians, and researchers interested in infinitesimal calculus.