Download and read online The Chemists War in PDF and EPUB The 1914-18 war has been referred to as the 'chemists' war' and to commemorate the centenary, this collection of essays will examine various facets of the role of chemistry in the First World War. Written by an experienced science writer, this book will be of interest to scientists and historians with an interest in this technologically challenging time.
Download and read online Quantum Generations in PDF and EPUB At the end of the nineteenth century, some physicists believed that the basic principles underlying their subject were already known, and that physics in the future would only consist of filling in the details. They could hardly have been more wrong. The past century has seen the rise of quantum mechanics, relativity, cosmology, particle physics, and solid-state physics, among other fields. These subjects have fundamentally changed our understanding of space, time, and matter. They have also transformed daily life, inspiring a technological revolution that has included the development of radio, television, lasers, nuclear power, and computers. In Quantum Generations, Helge Kragh, one of the world's leading historians of physics, presents a sweeping account of these extraordinary achievements of the past one hundred years. The first comprehensive one-volume history of twentieth-century physics, the book takes us from the discovery of X rays in the mid-1890s to superstring theory in the 1990s. Unlike most previous histories of physics, written either from a scientific perspective or from a social and institutional perspective, Quantum Generations combines both approaches. Kragh writes about pure science with the expertise of a trained physicist, while keeping the content accessible to nonspecialists and paying careful attention to practical uses of science, ranging from compact disks to bombs. As a historian, Kragh skillfully outlines the social and economic contexts that have shaped the field in the twentieth century. He writes, for example, about the impact of the two world wars, the fate of physics under Hitler, Mussolini, and Stalin, the role of military research, the emerging leadership of the United States, and the backlash against science that began in the 1960s. He also shows how the revolutionary discoveries of scientists ranging from Einstein, Planck, and Bohr to Stephen Hawking have been built on the great traditions of earlier centuries. Combining a mastery of detail with a sure sense of the broad contours of historical change, Kragh has written a fitting tribute to the scientists who have played such a decisive role in the making of the modern world.
Download and read online AVPS World History Series World War I in PDF and EPUB Contains materials for use in teaching how to interpret visual primary sources from the World War I era.
Download and read online The German Chemical Industry in the Twentieth Century in PDF and EPUB In the twentieth century, dyes, pharmaceuticals, photographic products, explosives, insecticides, fertilizers, synthetic rubber, fuels, and fibers, plastics, and other products have flowed out of the chemical industry and into the consumer economies, war machines, farms, and medical practices of industrial societies. The German chemical industry has been a major site for the development and application of the science-based technologies that gave rise to these products, and has had an important role as exemplar, stimulus, and competitor in the international chemical industry. This volume explores the German chemical industry's scientific and technological dimension, its international connections, and its development after 1945. The authors relate scientific and technological change in the industry to evolving German political and economic circumstances, including two world wars, the rise and fall of National Socialism, the post-war division of Germany, and the emergence of a global economy. This book will be of interest to historians of modern Germany, to historians of science and technology, and to business and economic historians.
Download and read online Prometheans in the Lab in PDF and EPUB Newton, Darwin, Pasteur, Einstein and other great physicists and biologists are household names, but the great chemists have received little recognition. Yet it could be argued that chemistry, more than any other scientific discipline, has made the modern world possible, largely through products that we take for granted. In the style of the biology classic, The Microbe Hunters, acclaimed science writer Sharon Bertsch McGrayne tells the history of the chemical revolution through the lives of the men who created it. We don't recognize their names, but their legacy is all around us. Before Nicholas LeBlanc discovered the chemical process for making washing soda in the early 1800s, soap was a highly taxed luxury item, and now it's something we use many times everyday without a second thought. Without chemical fertilizer there might have been worldwide starvation in the mid 1900s. Even something as simple as affordable dyes, which brought bright colorful clothing to the masses and democratized fashion, is given full attention. An even-handed account, Prometheans in the Lab describes not only the upside of each pivotal discovery, but also the oftentimes devastating unforeseen effects the
Download and read online Science and the Pacific War in PDF and EPUB In 1995, the fiftieth anniversary of the end of the Second World War occasioned many reflections on the place of science and technology in the conflict. That the war ended with Allied victory in the Pacific theatre, inevitably focussed attention upon the Pacific region, and particularly upon the Manhattan project and its outcome. It was in the Pacific that Western physics and engineering gave birth to the Atomic Age. However, the Pacific war had also proved a testing time, and a testing space, for other disciplines and institutions. Extreme environments and opemtional distances, and the fundamental demands of logistics, required the Allies and the Japanese to innovate many scientific and technological practices. Just as medicine and botany were called upon to fight tropical diseases and insect pests, so engineers, anthropol ogists and geographers were called upon to understand local conditions and cli mates, and to work with local peoples whose traditional lives were changed forever by the experience. At the same time, the war played midwife to a host of new de velopments, not least in scientific intelligence and in chemical and biological weapons, which were to acquire far greater importance after 1945.
Download and read online The Cold Wars in PDF and EPUB There is no temperature below absolute zero, and, in fact, zero itself is impossible to reach. The quest to reach it has lured scientists for several centuries revealing interesting and unexpected phenomena along the way. Atoms move more slowly at low temperatures, butmatter at barely above absolute zero is not immobile or even necessarily frozen. Among the most peculiar of matter's strange behaviours is superconductivity - simply described as electric current without resistance - discovered in 1911.
Download and read online A Short History of Physics in the American Century in PDF and EPUB As the twentieth century ended, computers, the Internet, and nanotechnology were central to modern American life. Yet the physical advances underlying these applications are poorly understood and underappreciated by U.S. citizens. In this overview, Cassidy views physics through America’s engagement with the political events of a tumultuous century.
Download and read online Revolution in Miniature in PDF and EPUB A basic contribution to the discussion of semiconductor electronics, the major technology of our age.
Download and read online Leonardo to the Internet in PDF and EPUB "Misa brings his acclaimed text up to date by examining how today's unsustainable energy systems, insecure information networks, and vulnerable global shipping have helped foster geopolitical risks and instability. A masterful analysis of how technology and culture have influenced each other over five centuries, Leonardo to the Internet frames a history that illuminates modern-day problems and prospects faced by our technology-dependent world
Download and read online The History of the University of Oxford Volume VIII The Twentieth Century in PDF and EPUB This is the first study of how one of the world's major universities has responded to the formidable challenges offered by the twentieth century. It is a generously illustrated and scholarly book which contributes significantly to the history of ideas and culture in twentieth-century Britain. It presents the reader with a rich cornucopia of insight into many aspects of British life and a valuable assessment of Oxford's influence in the world sphere. Contributors: Paul Addison, Giles Barber, Michael Brock, Valentine Cunningham, Robert Currie, J.G. Darwin, R.A. Denniston, J.P.D. Dunbabin, Daniel I. Greenstein, A.H. Halsey, Jose Harris, Brian Harrison, Janet Howarth, Diane Kay, J.B. Morrell, John Prest, John Roche, Keith Thomas, F.M. Turner, Charles Webster, D.J. Wenden, Christopher White, Richard Whiting, J.M. Winter
Download and read online A Companion to Europe 1900 1945 in PDF and EPUB This volume brings together a distinguished group of international scholars to discuss the major debates in the study of early twentieth-century Europe. Brings together contributions from a distinguished group of international scholars. Provides an overview of current thinking on the period. Traces the great political, social and economic upheavals of the time. Illuminates perennial themes, as well as new areas of enquiry. Takes a pan-European approach, highlighting similarities and differences across nations and regions.
Download and read online National Military Establishments and the Advancement of Science and Technology in PDF and EPUB Historical studies of the role of military agencies and considerations of military power in the promotion of science and technology have burgeoned since the early 1980s. Initially, such studies focused chiefly on the enormous expansion of physical research in the United States in the two decades following the Second World War. More recently it has become clear - and this collection of essays contributes importantly to that recognition - that a decisive influence of military factors upon the development of science and technology is by no means limited to the United States or to that one period. The great strength of this collection - apart from the quality and originality of the contributions - is the range of the national military and scientific cultures considered: Argentina, Britain, France, USA, and, especially, Germany and Spain.
Download and read online The Crisis in Economics in PDF and EPUB Economics can be pretty boring. Drier than Death Valley, the discipline is obsessed with mathematics and compounds this by arrogantly assuming its techniques can be brought to bear on the other social sciences. It wasn't going to be long, therefore, before students started complaining. The vast majority have voted with their feet and signed up for business and management degrees, but in the past two years there has grown an important new movement that has decided to tackle those who think they run economics head-on. This is the Post-autistic Economics Network. The PAE Network started in France and has spread first to Cambridge and then other parts of the world. The name derives from the fact that mainstream economics has been accused of institutional autism, ie. qualitative impairment of social interaction, failure to develop peer relationships and lack of emotional and social reciprocity. In short, economics has lost touch with reality and has become way too abstract. This book charts the impact the PAE Network has had so far and constitutes a manifesto for a different kind of economics - it features key contributions from all the major voices in heterodox economics including Tony Lawson, Deirdre McCloskey, Geoff Hodgson, Sheila Dow and Warren Samuels.
Download and read online Frontline and Factory in PDF and EPUB This book represents a first considered attempt to study the factors that conditioned industrial chemistry for war in 1914-18. Taking a comparative perspective, it reflects on the experience of France, Germany, Austria, Russia, Britain, Italy and Russia, and points to significant similarities and differences. It looks at changing patterns in the organisation of industry, and at the emerging symbiosis between science, industry and the military.