Download and read online The Rotary Cement Kiln in PDF and EPUB An indispensable reference source and training tool not only for kiln operators, but for supervisors and management staff as well. Extensive discussions on pre-heater and pre-calciner operations are included. The appendix includes a section with conversion tables, definitions of common terms relating to rotary kilns, and a suggested outline for a training program for new operators. Contents PART 1. KILN SYSTEMS AND THEORY 1. History 3 2. Types of Rotary Kilns 6 3. The Refractory 17 4. Fuels 37 5. Combustion 44 6. The Flame 63 7. Heat Transfer 83 8. Heat Balances 106 9. The Chemistry of Kiln Feed and Clinker 115 10. Reaction Zones in the Rotary Kiln 141 11. Coating and Ring Formation in a Rotary Kiln 147 12. The Air Circuit in a Rotary Kiln 155 13. Movement of Material Through the Kiln 174 PART II. KILN OPERATING PROCEDURES 199 14. Kiln Operating and Control Methods 201 15. Instrumentation 207 16. Kiln Control Variables 232 17. Fuel Systems 253 18. Clinker Cooler Control 266 19. Kiln Exit-Gas Temperature Control 292 20. Feed-Rate Control 299 2I. Kiln Starts and Shutdowns 308 22. The 27 Basic Kiln Conditions 327 23. Kiln Emergency Conditions 346 24. Safety and Accident Prevention 362 Appendix A: The International System of Units (SI) 367 Appendix B: Weights and Measures 369 Appendix C: Temperature Conversions 378 Appendix D: Kiln Operator's Quiz 382 Index 386
Download and read online Rotary Kilns in PDF and EPUB Rotary Kilns—rotating industrial drying ovens—are used for a wide variety of applications including processing raw minerals and feedstocks as well as heat-treating hazardous wastes. They are particularly critical in the manufacture of Portland cement. Their design and operation is critical to their efficient usage, which if done incorrectly can result in improperly treated materials and excessive, high fuel costs. This professional reference book will be the first comprehensive book in many years that treats all engineering aspects of rotary kilns, including a thorough grounding in the thermal and fluid principles involved in their operation, as well as how to properly design an engineering process that uses rotary kilns. This new edition contains an updated CFD section with inclusion of recent case studies and in line with recent developments covers pyrolysis processes, torrefaction of biomass, application of rotary kilns in C02 capture and information on using rotary kilns as incinerators for hydrocarbons. Provides essential information on fluid flow, granular flow, mixing and segregation, and aerodynamics during turbulent mixing and recirculation Gives guidance on which fuels to choose, including options such as natural gas versus coal-fired rotary kilns Covers principles of combustion and flame control, heat transfer and heating and material balances New edition contains information on pyrolysis processes with low temperatures and torrefaction of biomass. It also covers calcination of petcoke, how rotary kilns are used as incinerators for chlorinated hydrocarbons. Includes updated material on CFD simulation of kiln gas and solids flow with a selection of recent case studies.
Download and read online The Rotary Cement Kiln in PDF and EPUB Structured into fourteen chapters, this volume covers various aspects of kiln maintenance and deals with the wear of components, operational parameters and their impact on the condition of the kiln, maintenance-friendly design considerations of kiln components, on-line techniques for condition monitoring, repair during operation, effective management of a kiln shutdown, and some management approaches. It presents systematic analyses of the problems encountered during the life span of the kilns and suggests appropriate method(s) to tackle them and meet the needs of engineers and operators involved. Written in simple language, containing a good blend of theory and practice, and supported with practical reference tables and figures, this book is intended for engineers, operators and maintenance workers working with cement kilns. The author, Dr. J.P. Saxena is an absolute expert in the field.
Download and read online Refractory Engineering and Kiln Maintenance in Cement Plants in PDF and EPUB This book deals with two important areas that directly affect kiln availability for production. These two aspects decide if the cement plant would make profit or loss during the year. At the moment there is no book that deals with these aspects. The literature on these subjects is scattered and the totality of the subject is missing. The book Refractory Engineering and Kiln Maintenance in Cement Plants is an utmost requirement for the Cement Industry and would fulfil the needs of the Cement Industry all over the world. It has brought out various developments of refractory with the changing technological scenario. The contents is totally comprehensive in every respect and has been planned in such a way that starting from Changing Phases of Kiln Systems and Choice of Refractories, Improving the Kiln Up-time, there are also important chapters on Inspection, Storage and Packing of Refractories, Refractory Management, Kiln Maintenance with a bonus of a glossary of the technical terms. The book will serve as a handbook for production managers, production engineers, Kiln operators, refractory engineers, maintenance managers, purchase engineers, inventory engineers, warehouse officers and storekeepers.
Download and read online Calculation the Rotary Cement Kiln Capacity in PDF and EPUB
Download and read online Cement and Concrete in PDF and EPUB Cement and concrete are of great interest to the construction and civil engineering communities. This study provides an appreciation of the complex nature of these materials and a realization that most of the failures involving concrete constructions are preventable.
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Download and read online The Coal Handbook Towards Cleaner Production in PDF and EPUB Coal remains an important fossil fuel resource for many nations due to its large remaining resources, relatively low production and processing cost and potential high energy intensity. Certain issues surround its utilisation, however, including emissions of pollutants and growing concern about climate change. The coal handbook: Towards cleaner production Volume 2 explores global coal use in industry. Part one is an introductory section which reviews the social and economic value of coal, emissions from coal utilisation, the handling, impact and utilisation of coal waste, and an exploration of emerging and future issues around industrial coal utilization. Chapters in part two highlight coal resources, production and use in established markets as well as the emerging markets of Brazil, the Russian Federation, India, Indonesia, and China. Part three focuses specifically on coal utilisation in industry. Chapters consider thermal coal utilisation, coal use in iron and steel metallurgy, advances in pulverised fuel technology, and the evaluation of coal for thermal and metallurgical applications. Further chapters explore coal utilisation in the cement and concrete industries, coal gasification and conversion, and value-in-use assessment for thermal and metallurgical coal. A final chapter summarises the anticipated future pathway towards sustainable, long-term coal use, suggesting transitions that will be needed to ensure cleaner utilisation for many decades to come. With its distinguished editor and international team of expert contributors, The coal handbook Volumes 1 and 2 is a comprehensive and invaluable resource for professionals in the coal mining, preparation, and utilisation industry, those in the power sector, including plant operators and engineers, and researchers and academics interested in this field. Reviews the social and economic value of coal, emissions from coal utilisation, and the handling, impact and utilisation of coal waste Explores emerging and future issues around industrial coal utilization Highlights coal resources, production and use in established markets, as well as emerging markets such as Brazil, the Russian Federation, India, Indonesia, and China
Download and read online Advances in Neural Networks Isnn 2009 in PDF and EPUB The three volume set LNCS 5551/5552/5553 constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 6th International Symposium on Neural Networks, ISNN 2009, held in Wuhan, China in May 2009. The 409 revised papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from a total of 1.235 submissions. The papers are organized in 20 topical sections on theoretical analysis, stability, time-delay neural networks, machine learning, neural modeling, decision making systems, fuzzy systems and fuzzy neural networks, support vector machines and kernel methods, genetic algorithms, clustering and classification, pattern recognition, intelligent control, optimization, robotics, image processing, signal processing, biomedical applications, fault diagnosis, telecommunication, sensor network and transportation systems, as well as applications.
Download and read online The Solid Waste Handbook in PDF and EPUB A comprehensive, single-source reference of current issues in solid waste management designed as an aid in decision-making and assessment of future trends. Covers public perceptions, legislation, regulation, planning and financing, and technologies and operation. Reviews the evolution of waste management since the passage of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976, amended in 1978, 1980 and 1984. Examines common and divergent public and private concerns, including an in-depth review of public perceptions and their effect on planning and implementation. Also includes a discussion of the inadequacies of most waste quantity and composition estimates, with techniques for adequate evaluation. Looks at the misunderstanding and controversy over source separation and issues in municipal resource recovery from the viewpoint of the private scrap process industry. Also includes an unprecedented examination of the problem of bulky waste logistics and its effect on current disposal practice, and case histories and the current status of energy recovery from industrial waste. With over 500 tables, graphs, and illustrations.
Download and read online Microcomputer Application in Process Control in PDF and EPUB This symposium brings together the research from different disciplines of process control, and discusses the problems encountered in the application of automation systems. The papers in this volume analyze the results of theoretical research and how far applications have been developed, new design methodologies and technologies, to give a comprehensive overview of the state of the art of this fast-developing science.
Download and read online Energy Efficiency in the Cement Industry in PDF and EPUB This text presents the proceedings of a seminar organized by the CEC, Directorate-General for Energy and CIMPOR Cimentos de Portugal E.P. with the co-operation of Cembureau European Cement Association, held in Oporto, Portugal, 6-7 November 1989.
Download and read online Industrial Combustion Testing in PDF and EPUB Until now, anyone conducting industrial combustion tests had to either rely on old methods, go scurrying through the literature to find proven applicable methodologies, or hire top-shelf consultants such as those that work for cutting-edge companies like John Zink. Manufacturers can no longer take industrial combustion for granted. Air and noise pollution standards must be met, and today no one can afford the inefficient use of fuel. Drawing on three decades of experience, Charles Baukal Jr. is not only aware of the best methods but is responsible for designing and implementing a number of them, owning 11 patents of his own, as well as having hundreds of articles to his credit. Providing busy engineers with a convenient reference that gives them state-of-the-art techniques without having to cull through the literature, this practical compendium: Demonstrates how to conduct meaningful experiments with industrial scale combustion equipment Illustrates a number of methods through case studies Includes detailed pictures, figures, graphs, and tables, to explain processes and make sense of the data Presents valuable information on advanced diagnostics, burner and flare testing, and testing in combustors, including techniques for a variety of kilns, furnaces, and boilers Written to make better practioners out of academicians and better scholars out of hands-on engineers, this unique volume teaches academics how to work at the large scales associated with industrial combustion, while also teaching engineers the rigorous approach needed for successful modeling.
Download and read online Chemical Engineering and Thermodynamics Applied to the Cement Rotary Kiln in PDF and EPUB
Download and read online China s Technological Catch Up Strategy in PDF and EPUB Prior to 1979, China had a bifurcated and geographically-dispersed industrial structure made up of a relatively small number of large-scale, state-owned enterprises in various industries alongside numerous small-scale, energy-intensive and polluting enterprises. Economic reforms beginning in 1979 led to the rapid expansion of these small-scale manufacturing enterprises in numerous energy-intensive industries such as aluminum, cement, iron and steel, and pulp and paper. Subsequently, the government adopted a new industrial development strategy labeled "grasp the large, let go the small." The aims of this new policy were to close many of the unprofitable, small-scale manufacturing plants in these (and other) industries, create a small number of large enterprises that could compete with OECD multinationals, entice these larger enterprises to engage in high-speed technological catch-up, and save energy. China's Technological Catch-Up Strategy traces the impact of this new industrial development strategy on technological catch-up, energy use, and CO2 emissions. In doing so, the authors explore several detailed, enterprise-level case studies of technological catch-up; develop industry-wide estimates of energy and CO2 savings from specific catch-up interventions; and present detailed econometric work on the determinants of energy intensity. The authors conclude that China's strategy has contributred to substantial energy and CO2 savings, but it has not led to either a peaking of or a decline in CO2 emissions in these industries. More work is needed to cap and reduce China's CO2 emissions.