Download and read online Polymers and the Environment in PDF and EPUB As environmental performance becomes increasingly important, the development of man-made polymers and their associated benefits has been overshadowed by problems relating to their ultimate disposal. In the light of wider acceptance of polymers for use in high technology applications, Polymers and the Environment aims to redress the balance. The book reviews the properties and industrial applications of polymers and discusses their environmental benefits compared with traditional materials. It also addresses the issues of polymer durability, recycling processes to aid waste minimization and biodegradable polymers. This text is intended to introduce the non-specialist reader to the benefits and limitations of polymeric materials from an environmental viewpoint, and will prove a useful book for both students and professionals.
Download and read online Plastics and the Environment in PDF and EPUB An original, comprehensive survey on the complex relationship between plastics and the environment Plastics offer a variety of environmental benefits. However, their production, applications, and disposal present many environmental concerns. Plastics and the Environment provides state-of-the-art technical and research information on the complex relationship between the plastic and polymer industry and the environment, focusing on the sustainability, environmental impact, and cost-benefit tradeoffs associated with different technologies. Bringing together the field's leading researchers, Anthony Andrady's innovative collection not only covers how plastics affect the environment, but also how environmental factors affect plastics. The relative benefits of recycling, resource recovery, and energy recovery are also discussed in detail. The first of the book's four sections represents a basic introduction to the key subject matter of plastics and the environment; the second explores several pertinent applications of plastics with environmental implications-packaging, paints and coatings, textiles, and agricultural film use. The third section discusses the behavior of plastics in some of the environments in which they are typically used, such as the outdoors, in biotic environments, or in fires. The final section consists of chapters on recycling and thermal treatment of plastics waste. Chapters include: * Commodity Polymers * Plastics in Transportation * Biodegradation of Common Polymers * Thermal Treatment of Polymer Waste * Incineration of Plastics The contributors also focus on the effectiveness of recent technologies in mitigating environmental impacts, particularly those for managing plastics in the solid waste stream. Plastic and design engineers, polymer chemists, material scientists, and ecologists will find Plastics and the Environment to be a vital resource to this critical industry.
Download and read online Green Composites in PDF and EPUB With an internationally recognized team of contributors, Green Composites examines fibre reinforced polymer composite production and explains how environmental footprints can be diminished at every stage of the life cycle. The introductory chapters examine why green composites should be considered. The book then discusses properties of cellulose and wood. It examines recyclable synthetic fibre-thermoplastic composites as alternatives, then covers polymers derived from natural sources. The text details the factors that influence properties, and considers clean processing, applications, recycling, degradation, and reprocessing. The book is essential for government agricultural departments, automotive companies, and others devoted to eco-friendly materials and production.
Download and read online The Chemistry of Polymers in PDF and EPUB The Chemistry of Polymers, 5th Edition, is fully updated with the latest developments in polymer science providing a highly readable textbook for those requiring a broad overview of the subject. Like previous editions, the book continues to explore the subject from an applications point of view, providing a comprehensive introduction to all aspects of polymer science including synthesis, structure, properties, degradation and dendrimers. Recent advances in special topics in polymer chemistry and polymers and the environment are also discussed in an informative and up-to-date manner. The new edition features additional content on recent developments in new polymer synthesis techniques including reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization, atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) and ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP). The book also contains new content on the latest developments in polymer characterisation methods as well as applications of polymers including co-ordination polymers and lithium-polymer batteries. The book is essential reading for university students, teachers and scientists who wish to acquire an up-to-the-minute overview of polymer science and its many specialised topics in an informative and easy to read style.
Download and read online Biodegradable Polymers and Plastics in PDF and EPUB
Download and read online Environmental Risk of Polymers and Their Degradation Products in PDF and EPUB Polymer-based materials are found everywhere in the environment, but their impacts are yet to be fully understood. The degradation of different polymer types has been extensively investigated under specific laboratory conditions. However, only limited data are available on their degradation under environmentally relevant conditions, where a number of processes are assessed at once. This thesis therefore describes a series of outdoor aquatic microcosm studies and laboratory experiments to investigate the degradation of a case study polymer (natural rubber latex), to characterise the formation of degradation products, and to assess the effects these may have on aquatic organisms. The outdoor microcosm studies showed that the exclusion of light and material thickness had a greater influence on degradation rate than media pH and sample movement. Analysis of the degradation solutions demonstrated that when the latex polymer degraded, there was an increase in the formation of microscopic latex particles; zinc (used to speed up the rate of curing processes) migrated from the latex polymer into the test solutions; and a mixture of dissolved substances that are potentially oxidised latex oligomers with additives residues were formed. Further analyses also showed that the atmosphere is a receiving environmental compartment for polymer degradates though the identification of a range of volatile substances produced during the degradation process. Laboratory experiments were then conducted to investigate the direct toxicity of the formed degradate mixtures, using two freshwater organisms with different life cycle traits, the water column crustacean Daphnia magna and the sediment-dwelling larvae of Chironomus riparius. The results suggest that, to the organisms tested, there is limited environmental risk associated with latex degradation products. Overall, environments receiving polymer debris are potentially exposed to a mixture of compounds that include the parent polymer, fragmented particles, leached additives, and subsequent degradation products; however at environmentally relevant concentrations this latex degradates pose little risk.
Download and read online Handbook of Biodegradable Polymers in PDF and EPUB This book is a complete guide to polymers, which degrade naturally once they are finished with. This is an especially important topic at the moment as landfill space is getting less and other methods of recycling can be very costly. This book discusses the different types of biodegradable polymers, both naturally occurring and synthetic, and how they are used and the mechanisms for degradation.
Download and read online Sustainable Agriculture and the Environment in the Humid Tropics in PDF and EPUB Rain forests are rapidly being cleared in the humid tropics to keep pace with food demands, economic needs, and population growth. Without proper management, these forests and other natural resources will be seriously depleted within the next 50 years. Sustainable Agriculture and the Environment in the Humid Tropics provides critically needed direction for developing strategies that both mitigate land degradation, deforestation, and biological resource losses and help the economic status of tropical countries through promotion of sustainable agricultural practices. The book includes A practical discussion of 12 major land use options for boosting food production and enhancing local economies while protecting the natural resource base. Recommendations for developing technologies needed for sustainable agriculture. A strategy for changing policies that discourage conserving and managing natural resources and biodiversity. Detailed reports on agriculture and deforestation in seven tropical countries.
Download and read online Advanced Functional Polymers and Composites in PDF and EPUB It is well known that polymeric and composite materials are finding various applications in some critical areas of human endeavors, such as medicine, medical appliances, energy and the environment. This edition will, hopefully, evoke interest from scientists working in the fields of chemistry, environmental chemistry, polymer chemistry, electrochemistry and material science. Its applications and uses include: voltammetric nanoelectrodes, photocatalytic materials and reactors, the adsorption of pollutants, environmental pollution control, support vector machines as applied to polymers, and the simulation of the ion exchange membrane. This edition is a highly valuable source for scientists, researchers, upper-level undergraduate and graduate students, as well as college and university professors, because it provides the most up-to-date reference work summarizing the pioneering research work in the field of polymeric and composite materials
Download and read online Humic Matter in Soil and the Environment in PDF and EPUB The only book to completely define and explore the genesis, extraction, properties, and impact of humic matter on agriculture, industry, and the environment, Humic Matter in Soil and the Environment delves into the issues and controversies associated with produced and natural humic compounds. It assesses the role of humic substances in medicines, fertilizers, and industrial and pharmaceutical operations, providing characteristic visible light, infrared, ESR, NMR spectra, and electron micrographs for every humic compound. Unparalleled in scope and depth, this reference examines controversies regarding humic matter as a real or false compound and identifies trends and prospects for the future.
Download and read online Degradable Polymers Recycling and Plastics Waste Management in PDF and EPUB Based on the International Workshop on Controlled Life-Cycle of Polymeric Materials held in Stockholm, this work examines degradable polymers and the recycling of plastic materials. It highlights recent results on recycling and waste management, including topics such as renewable resources, degradation, processing and products, and environmental issues.
Download and read online Polymers in PDF and EPUB
Download and read online Chlorine and the Environment in PDF and EPUB This is the first book to examine comprehensively the chlorine industry and its effects on the environment. It covers not only the history of chlorine production, but also looks at its products, their effects on the global environment, and the international legislation which controls their use, release, and disposal. Individual chapters are dedicated to subjects such as releases of organochlorines into the environment, and the environmental impact of ozone depletion, providing simple explanations of these complex issues. These are backed up with case studies of landmark events in the history of the chlorine industry - for example the Seveso explosion or the Yusho and Yu-Cheng mass poisonings. With a clear, concise text and numerous compilations of critical data, this book will prove an invaluable source reference for environmental scientists, students, and policy makers with an interest in this subject.
Download and read online Bio Based Polymers and Composites in PDF and EPUB Bio-Based Polymers and Composites is the first book systematically describing the green engineering, chemistry and manufacture of biobased polymers and composites derived from plants. This book gives a thorough introduction to bio-based material resources, availability, sustainability, biobased polymer formation, extraction and refining technologies, and the need for integrated research and multi-disciplinary working teams. It provides an in-depth description of adhesives, resins, plastics, and composites derived from plant oils, proteins, starches, and natural fibers in terms of structures, properties, manufacturing, and product performance. This is an excellent book for scientists, engineers, graduate students and industrial researchers in the field of bio-based materials. * First book describing the utilization of crops to make high performance plastics, adhesives, and composites * Interdisciplinary approach to the subject, integrating genetic engineering, plant science, food science, chemistry, physics, nano-technology, and composite manufacturing. * Explains how to make green materials at low cost from soyoil, proteins, starch, natural fibers, recycled newspapers, chicken feathers and waste agricultural by-products.
Download and read online Green Polymers and Environmental Pollution Control in PDF and EPUB Green Polymers and Environment Pollution Control examines the latest developments in the important and growing field of producing conventional polymers from sustainable sources. Presenting cutting-edge research from a group of leading international researchers from academia, government, and industrial institutions, the book explains what green polymers are, why green polymers are needed, which green polymers to use, and how manufacturing companies can integrate them into their manufacturing operations. It goes on to provide guidelines for implementing sustainable practices for traditional petroleum-based plastics, biobased plastics, and recycled plastics. With recent advancements in synthesis technologies and the discovery of new functional monomers, research shows that green polymers with better properties can be produced from renewable resources. The book describes these advances in synthesis, processing, and technology. It provides not only state-of-the-art information but also acts to stimulate research in this direction. Green Polymers and Environment Pollution Control offers an excellent resource for researchers, upper-level graduate students, brand owners, environment and sustainability managers, business development and innovation professionals, chemical engineers, plastics manufacturers, agriculture specialists, biochemists, and suppliers to the industry to debate sustainable, economic solutions for polymer synthesis.