Download and read online Molecular Microbiology of Heavy Metals in PDF and EPUB This book covers allocation of metals in cells, metal transporter, storage and metalloregulatory proteins, cellular responses to metal ion stress, transcription of genes involved in metal ion homeostasis, uptake of essential metals, metal efflux and other detoxification mechanisms. The book also discusses metal bioreporters for the nanomolar range of concentration and tools to address the metallome. In addition, coverage details specific metals.
Download and read online Environmental Microbiology in PDF and EPUB With contributions from a broad range of leading researchers this book focuses on current technology and its applications. Although aimed primarily at research scientists and graduate students in water microbilogy, the topics and techniques are equally applicable to all branches of environmental microbiology. The initial chapters cover the concentration, detection and characterization of microbes in drinking water, other chapters are technology focused and cover topics such as geochips and microarrays and their applications, Raman microspectroscopy and related single cell techniques, the use of amoebae hosts, bacteria and bacteriophage as bioreporters, viability of detected microbes and fecal source tracking. The value of the book emanates from its explanation of principles and the comparison of related techniques. An essential book for water microbiologists, environmental microbiologists and regulators and recommended reading for all microbiologists and environmental scientists.
Download and read online Ecological Biochemistry in PDF and EPUB The first stand-alone textbook for at least ten years on this increasingly hot topic in times of global climate change and sustainability in ecosystems. Ecological biochemistry refers to the interaction of organisms with their abiotic environment and other organisms by chemical means. Biotic and abiotic factors determine the biochemical flexibility of organisms, which otherwise easily adapt to environmental changes by altering their metabolism. Sessile plants, in particular, have evolved intricate biochemical response mechanisms to fit into a changing environment. This book covers the chemistry behind these interactions, bottom up from the atomic to the system's level. An introductory part explains the physico-chemical basis and biochemical roots of living cells, leading to secondary metabolites as crucial bridges between organisms and the respective ecosystem. The focus then shifts to the biochemical interactions of plants, fungi and bacteria within terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems with the aim of linking biochemical insights to ecological research, also in human-influenced habitats. A section is devoted to methodology, which allows network-based analyses of molecular processes underlying systems phenomena. A companion website offering an extended version of the introductory chapter on Basic Biochemical Roots is available at http://www.wiley.com/go/Krauss/Nies/EcologicalBiochemistry
Download and read online Microbial Megaplasmids in PDF and EPUB Megaplasmids are extrachromosomal genetic elements in the size range of 100 kb and larger. They are found in physiologically and phylogenetically diverse groups of bacteria and archaea. By definition, megaplasmids are not essential for the viability of their hosts under all growth conditions, but paradoxically many megaplasmids carry the genetic information for the defining and characteristic traits of the organism in which they reside. Microbial Megaplasmids reviews our knowledge of the extensively studied representatives, such as the catabolic plasmids of the pseudomonads, the rhizobial Sym plasmids, the Ti plasmids of the genus Agrobacterium and the giant enterobacterial virulence plasmids. It also presents snapshots of more recently discovered megaplasmids. The contribution of megaplasmids to the biology of their hosts is described, highlighting the interactions between megaplasmid and chromosomal genes.
Download and read online Organohalide Respiring Bacteria in PDF and EPUB This book summarizes the current state of knowledge concerning bacteria that use halogenated organic compounds as respiratory electron acceptors. The discovery of organohalide-respiring bacteria has expanded the range of electron acceptors used for energy conservation, and serves as a prime example of how scientific discoveries are enabling innovative engineering solutions that have transformed remediation practice. Individual chapters provide in-depth background information on the discovery, isolation, phylogeny, biochemistry, genomic features, and ecology of individual organohalide-respiring genera, including Dehalococcoides, Dehalogenimonas, Dehalobacter, Desulfitobacterium and Sulfurospirillum, as well as organohalide-respiring members of the Deltaproteobacteria. The book introduces readers to the fascinating biology of organohalide-respiring bacteria, offering a valuable resource for students, engineers and practitioners alike.
Download and read online Understanding the Geological and Medical Interface of Arsenic As 2012 in PDF and EPUB The congress "Arsenic in the Environment" offers an international, multi- and interdisciplinary discussion platform for arsenic research aimed at practical solutions of problems with considerable social impact, as well as focusing on cutting edge and breakthrough research in physical, chemical, toxicological, medical and other specific issues on arsenic on a broader environmental realm. The congress "Arsenic in the Environment" was first organized in Mexico City (As 2006) followed by As 2008 in Valencia, Spain and As 2010 in Tainan, Taiwan. The 4th International Congress As 2012 was held in Cairns, Australia from July 22-27, 2012 entitled Understanding the Geological and Medical Interface of Arsenic. The session topics comprised: 1. Geology and hydrogeology of arsenic; 2. Medical and health issues of arsenic; 3. Remediation and policy; 4. Analytical methods for arsenic; and 5. Special topics on "Risk assessment of arsenic from mining", "Geomicrobiology of arsenic", "Geothermal arsenic", "Rice arsenic and health perspectives", "Sustainable mitigation of arsenic: from field trials to policy implications", and "Biogeochemical processes of high arsenic groundwater in inland basins" Hosting this congress in Australia was welcome and valued by the local scientific communities. Australia is a mineral rich country where mining has generated significant economic benefit to its people. Unfortunately historical mining for base metals, gold and arsenic had led to environmental contamination of arsenic. Locally produced arsenical compounds were widely used as pesticides and in timber preservation. It is known that there are several thousands of cattle- and sheep-dip sites contaminated with arsenic in Australia. However, commonly observed symptoms of chronic arsenic poisonings such as those found in endemic-blackfoot areas are seemingly absent from these types of environmental contamination due to good quality of potable water supply. Does this fall in the classic argument of "the dose makes the poison"? This congress theme of "understanding the geological and medical interface of arsenic" will advance our knowledge in minimising the risk posted by this so-called number one prioritised contaminant – arsenic.
Download and read online Metal Response in Cupriavidus metallidurans in PDF and EPUB This book is the first volume of a two-volume set summarizing 40 years of key research findings directly related to metal-resistant Cupriavidus/Ralstonia (Betaproteobacteria). In this first volume, the historical and geographical context of these bacteria, which are mostly found in industrial and polluted environments linked to zinc and other non-ferrous metallurgy, is sketched to illustrate the interactions between bacteria and human activities and the possible evolutionary consequences on bacterial genomes especially as far as the association of metal resistance genes with mobile genetic elements is concerned. A detailed description of the response and underlying genetic determinants of type strain Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34 to a variety of metals is provided. With high level resistance to cadmium, chromate, cobalt, copper, mercury, nickel, lead and zinc mediated by well-known genes for detoxification carried by its megaplasmids pMOL28 and pMOL30. This description is complemented with the genomic context of the metal response genes in C. metallidurans CH34 with a focus on its mobilome including insertion sequence elements, transposons, integrative and conjugative elements and genomic islands. In addition, in the second volume, structural and catalytic data from bacterial primary and secondary transporters (P-ATPases, tripartite chemiosmotic cation/proton efflux systems, cation diffusion facilitators, Major Facilitator Superfamily and some minor categories) are outlined and detailed for the corresponding C. metallidurans proteins. The available three-dimensional structures of C. metallidurans proteins are reviewed in detail, including RND and membrane fusion proteins (from tripartite chemiosmotic cation/proton efflux systems), sigma and anti-sigma regulatory proteins of the cnr efflux system (resistance to cobalt and nickel) and various periplasmic proteins mainly involved in the response to copper and mercury.
Download and read online Uncultivated Microorganisms in PDF and EPUB In 1898, an Austrian microbiologist Heinrich Winterberg made a curious observation: the number of microbial cells in his samples did not match the number of colonies formed on nutrient media (Winterberg 1898). About a decade later, J. Amann qu- tified this mismatch, which turned out to be surprisingly large, with non-growing cells outnumbering the cultivable ones almost 150 times (Amann 1911). These papers signify some of the earliest steps towards the discovery of an important phenomenon known today as the Great Plate Count Anomaly (Staley and Konopka 1985). Note how early in the history of microbiology these steps were taken. Detecting the Anomaly almost certainly required the Plate. If so, then the period from 1881 to 1887, the years when Robert Koch and Petri introduced their key inventions (Koch 1881; Petri 1887), sets the earliest boundary for the discovery, which is remarkably close to the 1898 observations by H. Winterberg. Celebrating its 111th anniversary, the Great Plate Count Anomaly today is arguably the oldest unresolved microbiological phenomenon. In the years to follow, the Anomaly was repeatedly confirmed by all microb- logists who cared to compare the cell count in the inoculum to the colony count in the Petri dish (cf., Cholodny 1929; Butkevich 1932; Butkevich and Butkevich 1936). By mid-century, the remarkable difference between the two counts became a universally recognized phenomenon, acknowledged by several classics of the time (Waksman and Hotchkiss 1937; ZoBell 1946; Jannasch and Jones 1959).
Download and read online Biology of Rhodococcus in PDF and EPUB Rhodococcus, a metabolically versatile actinobacteria which is frequently found in the environment, has gained increasing interest due to its potential biotechnological applications. This Microbiology Monographs volume provides a thorough review of the various aspects of the biochemistry, physiology and genetics of the Genus Rhodococcus. Following an overview of its taxonomy, chapters cover the structural aspects of rhodococcal cellular envelope, genomes and plasmids, metabolic and catabolic pathways, such as those of aromatic compounds, steroids and nitriles, and desulfurization pathways, as well as the adaption to organic solvents. Further reviews discuss applications of Rhodococcus in the bioremediation of contaminated environments, in triacylglycerol accumulation, and in phytopathogenic strategies, as well as the potential of biosurfactants. A final chapter describes the sole pathogenic Rhodococcus member, R. equi.
Download and read online Alginates Biology and Applications in PDF and EPUB "Alginates: Biology and Applications" provides an overview of the state of art of alginate material properties, genetics and the molecular mechanisms underlying alginate biosynthesis as well as applications of tailor-made alginates in medicine, food and biotechnology. Topics treated are: material properties of alginates, alginate production: precursor biosynthesis, polymerization and secretion, bacterial system for alginate uptake and degradation, enzymatic alginate modification, alginate gene regulation, role of alginate in bacterial biofilms, microbial production of alginates: physiology and process aspects, alginate-based blends and nano/microbeads, applications of alginates in food, alginate and its comonomer mannuronic acid: medical relevance as drugs.
Download and read online Endo symbiotic Methanogenic Archaea in PDF and EPUB Methanogens are prokaryotic microorganisms that produce methane as an end-product of a complex biochemical pathway. They are strictly anaerobic archaea and occupy a wide variety of anoxic environments. Methanogens also thrive in the cytoplasm of anaerobic unicellular eukaryotes and in the gastrointestinal tracts of animals and humans. The symbiotic methanogens in the gastrointestinal tracts of ruminants and other “methanogenic” mammals contribute significantly to the global methane budget. This monograph deals with methanogenic endosymbionts of anaerobic protists, in particular ciliates and termite flagellates, and with methanogens in the gastrointestinal tracts of vertebrates and arthropods. Further reviews discuss the genomic consequences of living together in symbiotic associations, the role of methanogens in syntrophic degradation, and the function and evolution of hydrogenosomes, hydrogen-producing organelles of certain anaerobic protists.
Download and read online Biosurfactants in PDF and EPUB Biosurfactants, tensio-active compounds produced by living cells, are now gaining increasing interest due to their potential applications in many different industrial areas in which to date almost exclusively synthetic surfactants have been used. Their unique structures and characteristics are just starting to be appreciated. In addition, biosurfactants are considered to be environmentally “friendly,” relatively non-toxic and biodegradable. This Microbiology Monographs volume deals with the most recent advances in the field of microbial biosurfactants, such as rhamnolipids, serrawettins, trehalolipids, mannosylerythritol lipids, sophorolipids, surfactin and other lipopeptides. Each chapter reviews the characteristics of an individual biosurfactant including the physicochemical properties, the chemical structures, the role in the physiology of the producing microbes, the biosynthetic pathways, the genetic regulation, and the potential biotechnological applications.
Download and read online Structures and Organelles in Pathogenic Protists in PDF and EPUB Parasitic protozoa, including some which are agents of human and veterinary diseases, display special cytoplasmic structures and organelles. Metabolic pathways have been discovered in these organelles which open up new possibilities for drug targets. This work presents reviews dealing with cytoskeletal structures such as the mastigont system found in trichomonads, the sub-pellicular microtubules in trypanosomatids and the paraflagellar rod. Further chapters cover structures involved in the synthesis, secretion and uptake of molecules, including the flagellar pocket of trypanosomatids, the reservosome of Trypanosoma and the megasome found in Leishmania, the traffic of vesicles in Entamoeba histolytica, secretory organelles and the secretory events of intestinal parasites during encystation. Reviews on special organelles, such as the kinetoplast-mitochondrion complex, the apicoplast found in Apicomplexa, the glycosomes in Kinetoplastida and the acidocalcisomes found in several protozoa complete the volume.
Download and read online Plant Growth and Health Promoting Bacteria in PDF and EPUB To cope with the increasing problems created by agrochemicals such as plant fertilizers, pesticides and other plant protection agents, biological alternatives have been developed over the past years. These include biopesticides, such as bacteria for the control of plant diseases, and biofertilizer to improve crop productivity and quality. Especially plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are as effective as pure chemicals in terms of plant growth enhancement and disease control, in addition to their ability to manage abiotic and other stresses in plants. The various facets of these groups of bacteria are treated in this Microbiology Monograph, with emphasis on their emergence in agriculture. Further topics are Bacillus species that excrete peptides and lipopeptides with antifungal, antibacterial and surfactant activity, plant-bacteria-environment interactions, mineral-nutrient exchange, nitrogen assimilation, biofilm formation and cold-tolerant microorganisms.
Download and read online Amino Acid Homopolymers Occurring in Nature in PDF and EPUB Microorganisms are capable of producing a wide variety of biopolymers. Homopolymer peptides, which are made up of only a single type of amino acid, are far less ubiquitous. The only two amino-acid homopolymers known to occur in nature are presented in this volume. Poly-epsilon-L-lysine is a polycationic peptide and exhibits antimicrobial activity against a wide spectrum of microorganisms. It is both safe and biodegradable and is therefore used as a food preservative in several countries. In addition, there has been great interest in medical and other applications of poly-lysine and its derivatives. In contrast, poly-gamma-glutamic acid is an unusual anionic polypeptide. It is also water soluble, biodegradable, edible, non-toxic and non-immunogenic and can be chemically modified to introduce various drugs. These features are very useful for pharmaceutical and biomedical applications. Poly-glutamic acid is also a highly attractive as a food ingredient.