Hidden Human Computers The Black Women of NASA

Filename: hidden-human-computers-the-black-women-of-nasa.pdf
ISBN: 9781680797404
Release Date: 2016-12-15
Number of pages:
Author: Sue Bradford Edwards
Publisher: ABDO

Download and read online Hidden Human Computers The Black Women of NASA in PDF and EPUB Hidden Human Computersdiscusses how in the 1950s, black women made critical contributions to NASA by performing calculations that made it possible for the nation's astronauts to fly into space and return safely to Earth. Aligned to Common Core Standards and correlated to state standards. Essential Library is an imprint of Abdo Publishing, a division of ABDO.


Hidden Figures

Filename: hidden-figures.pdf
ISBN: 0062677284
Release Date: 2017-09-05
Number of pages: 368
Author: Margot Lee Shetterly
Publisher: William Morrow Paperbacks

Download and read online Hidden Figures in PDF and EPUB The #1 New York Times bestseller The phenomenal true story of the black female mathematicians at NASA whose calculations helped fuel some of America’s greatest achievements in space. Soon to be a major motion picture starring Taraji P. Henson, Octavia Spencer, Janelle Monae, Kirsten Dunst, and Kevin Costner. Before John Glenn orbited the earth, or Neil Armstrong walked on the moon, a group of dedicated female mathematicians known as “human computers” used pencils, slide rules and adding machines to calculate the numbers that would launch rockets, and astronauts, into space. Among these problem-solvers were a group of exceptionally talented African American women, some of the brightest minds of their generation. Originally relegated to teaching math in the South’s segregated public schools, they were called into service during the labor shortages of World War II, when America’s aeronautics industry was in dire need of anyone who had the right stuff. Suddenly, these overlooked math whizzes had a shot at jobs worthy of their skills, and they answered Uncle Sam’s call, moving to Hampton, Virginia and the fascinating, high-energy world of the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory. Even as Virginia’s Jim Crow laws required them to be segregated from their white counterparts, the women of Langley’s all-black “West Computing” group helped America achieve one of the things it desired most: a decisive victory over the Soviet Union in the Cold War, and complete domination of the heavens. Starting in World War II and moving through to the Cold War, the Civil Rights Movement and the Space Race, Hidden Figures follows the interwoven accounts of Dorothy Vaughan, Mary Jackson, Katherine Johnson and Christine Darden, four African American women who participated in some of NASA’s greatest successes. It chronicles their careers over nearly three decades they faced challenges, forged alliances and used their intellect to change their own lives, and their country’s future.


Rise of the Rocket Girls

Filename: rise-of-the-rocket-girls.pdf
ISBN: 9780316338912
Release Date: 2016-04-05
Number of pages: 352
Author: Nathalia Holt
Publisher: Hachette UK

Download and read online Rise of the Rocket Girls in PDF and EPUB "If Hidden Figures has you itching to learn more about the women who worked in the space program, pick up Nathalia Holt's lively, immensely readable history, Rise of the Rocket Girls." --Entertainment Weekly The riveting true story of the women who launched America into space. In the 1940s and 50s, when the newly minted Jet Propulsion Laboratory needed quick-thinking mathematicians to calculate velocities and plot trajectories, they didn't turn to male graduates. Rather, they recruited an elite group of young women who, with only pencil, paper, and mathematical prowess, transformed rocket design, helped bring about the first American satellites, and made the exploration of the solar system possible. For the first time, Rise of the Rocket Girls tells the stories of these women--known as "human computers"--who broke the boundaries of both gender and science. Based on extensive research and interviews with all the living members of the team, Rise of the Rocket Girls offers a unique perspective on the role of women in science: both where we've been, and the far reaches of space to which we're heading.


Women with Wings Women Pilots of World War II

Filename: women-with-wings-women-pilots-of-world-war-ii.pdf
ISBN: 9781680797442
Release Date: 2016-12-15
Number of pages:
Author: Shannon Baker Moore
Publisher: ABDO

Download and read online Women with Wings Women Pilots of World War II in PDF and EPUB Women with Wingsdiscusses how in the 1940s, women broke free from traditional gender roles by piloting aircraft both on the homefront and in combat, making critical contributions to the Allied victory in World War II. Aligned to Common Core Standards and correlated to state standards. Essential Library is an imprint of Abdo Publishing, a division of ABDO.


When Computers Were Human

Filename: when-computers-were-human.pdf
ISBN: 9781400849369
Release Date: 2013-11-01
Number of pages: 424
Author: David Alan Grier
Publisher: Princeton University Press

Download and read online When Computers Were Human in PDF and EPUB Before Palm Pilots and iPods, PCs and laptops, the term "computer" referred to the people who did scientific calculations by hand. These workers were neither calculating geniuses nor idiot savants but knowledgeable people who, in other circumstances, might have become scientists in their own right. When Computers Were Human represents the first in-depth account of this little-known, 200-year epoch in the history of science and technology. Beginning with the story of his own grandmother, who was trained as a human computer, David Alan Grier provides a poignant introduction to the wider world of women and men who did the hard computational labor of science. His grandmother's casual remark, "I wish I'd used my calculus," hinted at a career deferred and an education forgotten, a secret life unappreciated; like many highly educated women of her generation, she studied to become a human computer because nothing else would offer her a place in the scientific world. The book begins with the return of Halley's comet in 1758 and the effort of three French astronomers to compute its orbit. It ends four cycles later, with a UNIVAC electronic computer projecting the 1986 orbit. In between, Grier tells us about the surveyors of the French Revolution, describes the calculating machines of Charles Babbage, and guides the reader through the Great Depression to marvel at the giant computing room of the Works Progress Administration. When Computers Were Human is the sad but lyrical story of workers who gladly did the hard labor of research calculation in the hope that they might be part of the scientific community. In the end, they were rewarded by a new electronic machine that took the place and the name of those who were, once, the computers.


Hidden Figures

Filename: hidden-figures.pdf
ISBN: 9780062363619
Release Date: 2016-09-06
Number of pages: 368
Author: Margot Lee Shetterly
Publisher: HarperCollins

Download and read online Hidden Figures in PDF and EPUB The #1 New York Times bestseller The phenomenal true story of the black female mathematicians at NASA whose calculations helped fuel some of America’s greatest achievements in space. Soon to be a major motion picture starring Taraji P. Henson, Octavia Spencer, Janelle Monae, Kirsten Dunst, and Kevin Costner. Before John Glenn orbited the earth, or Neil Armstrong walked on the moon, a group of dedicated female mathematicians known as “human computers” used pencils, slide rules and adding machines to calculate the numbers that would launch rockets, and astronauts, into space. Among these problem-solvers were a group of exceptionally talented African American women, some of the brightest minds of their generation. Originally relegated to teaching math in the South’s segregated public schools, they were called into service during the labor shortages of World War II, when America’s aeronautics industry was in dire need of anyone who had the right stuff. Suddenly, these overlooked math whizzes had a shot at jobs worthy of their skills, and they answered Uncle Sam’s call, moving to Hampton, Virginia and the fascinating, high-energy world of the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory. Even as Virginia’s Jim Crow laws required them to be segregated from their white counterparts, the women of Langley’s all-black “West Computing” group helped America achieve one of the things it desired most: a decisive victory over the Soviet Union in the Cold War, and complete domination of the heavens. Starting in World War II and moving through to the Cold War, the Civil Rights Movement and the Space Race, Hidden Figures follows the interwoven accounts of Dorothy Vaughan, Mary Jackson, Katherine Johnson and Christine Darden, four African American women who participated in some of NASA’s greatest successes. It chronicles their careers over nearly three decades they faced challenges, forged alliances and used their intellect to change their own lives, and their country’s future.


The Stonewall Riots The Fight for Lgbt Rights

Filename: the-stonewall-riots-the-fight-for-lgbt-rights.pdf
ISBN: 9781680797435
Release Date: 2016-12-15
Number of pages:
Author: Tristan Poehlmann
Publisher: ABDO

Download and read online The Stonewall Riots The Fight for Lgbt Rights in PDF and EPUB The Stonewall Riotsdiscusses how in 1969, lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people stood up for their rights against a society that criminalized their natural feelings, launching a movement whose legacy continues to this day. Aligned to Common Core Standards and correlated to state standards. Essential Library is an imprint of Abdo Publishing, a division of ABDO.


Black Feminist Politics from Kennedy to Clinton

Filename: black-feminist-politics-from-kennedy-to-clinton.pdf
ISBN: 9780230623200
Release Date: 2009-07-20
Number of pages: 190
Author: D. Harris
Publisher: Springer

Download and read online Black Feminist Politics from Kennedy to Clinton in PDF and EPUB Taking an interdisciplinary approach, this book analyzes Black women's involvement in American political life, focusing on what they did to gain political power between 1961 and 2001, and why, in many cases, they did not succeed.


The Glass Universe

Filename: the-glass-universe.pdf
ISBN: 9780698148697
Release Date: 2016-12-06
Number of pages: 336
Author: Dava Sobel
Publisher: Penguin

Download and read online The Glass Universe in PDF and EPUB New from #1 New York Times bestselling author Dava Sobel, the "inspiring" (People), little-known true story of women's landmark contributions to astronomy "A joy to read.” —The Wall Street Journal Named one of the best books of the year by NPR, The Economist, Smithsonian, Nature, and NPR's Science Friday Nominated for the PEN/E.O. Wilson Literary Science Writing Award In the mid-nineteenth century, the Harvard College Observatory began employing women as calculators, or “human computers,” to interpret the observations their male counterparts made via telescope each night. At the outset this group included the wives, sisters, and daughters of the resident astronomers, but soon the female corps included graduates of the new women's colleges—Vassar, Wellesley, and Smith. As photography transformed the practice of astronomy, the ladies turned from computation to studying the stars captured nightly on glass photographic plates. The “glass universe” of half a million plates that Harvard amassed over the ensuing decades—through the generous support of Mrs. Anna Palmer Draper, the widow of a pioneer in stellar photography—enabled the women to make extraordinary discoveries that attracted worldwide acclaim. They helped discern what stars were made of, divided the stars into meaningful categories for further research, and found a way to measure distances across space by starlight. Their ranks included Williamina Fleming, a Scottish woman originally hired as a maid who went on to identify ten novae and more than three hundred variable stars; Annie Jump Cannon, who designed a stellar classification system that was adopted by astronomers the world over and is still in use; and Dr. Cecilia Helena Payne, who in 1956 became the first ever woman professor of astronomy at Harvard—and Harvard’s first female department chair. Elegantly written and enriched by excerpts from letters, diaries, and memoirs, The Glass Universe is the hidden history of the women whose contributions to the burgeoning field of astronomy forever changed our understanding of the stars and our place in the universe.


Racially Writing the Republic

Filename: racially-writing-the-republic.pdf
ISBN: 9780822392156
Release Date: 2009-07-08
Number of pages: 341
Author: Bruce Baum
Publisher: Duke University Press

Download and read online Racially Writing the Republic in PDF and EPUB Racially Writing the Republic investigates the central role of race in the construction and transformation of American national identity from the Revolutionary War era to the height of the civil rights movement. Drawing on political theory, American studies, critical race theory, and gender studies, the contributors to this collection highlight the assumptions of white (and often male) supremacy underlying the thought and actions of major U.S. political and social leaders. At the same time, they examine how nonwhite writers and activists have struggled against racism and for the full realization of America’s political ideals. The essays are arranged chronologically by subject, and, with one exception, each essay is focused on a single figure, from George Washington to James Baldwin. The contributors analyze Thomas Jefferson’s legacy in light of his sexual relationship with his slave, Sally Hemings; the way that Samuel Gompers, the first president of the American Federation of Labor, rallied his organization against Chinese immigrant workers; and the eugenicist origins of the early-twentieth-century birth-control movement led by Margaret Sanger. They draw attention to the writing of Sarah Winnemucca, a Northern Piute and one of the first published Native American authors; the anti-lynching activist Ida B. Wells-Barnett; the Filipino American writer Carlos Bulosan; and the playwright Lorraine Hansberry, who linked civil rights struggles in the United States to anticolonial efforts abroad. Other figures considered include Alexis de Tocqueville and his traveling companion Gustave de Beaumont, Juan Nepomuceno Cortina (who fought against Anglo American expansion in what is now Texas), Abraham Lincoln, Theodore Roosevelt, and W. E. B. Du Bois. In the afterword, George Lipsitz reflects on U.S. racial politics since 1965. Contributors. Bruce Baum, Cari M. Carpenter, Gary Gerstle, Duchess Harris, Catherine A. Holland, Allan Punzalan Isaac, Laura Janara, Ben Keppel, George Lipsitz, Gwendolyn Mink, Joel Olson, Dorothy Roberts, Patricia A. Schechter, John Kuo Wei Tchen, Jerry Thompson


Apollo in the Age of Aquarius

Filename: apollo-in-the-age-of-aquarius.pdf
ISBN: 9780674971998
Release Date: 2017-03-27
Number of pages: 368
Author: Neil M. Maher
Publisher: Harvard University Press

Download and read online Apollo in the Age of Aquarius in PDF and EPUB In summer 1969, astronauts landed on the moon and hippie hordes descended on Woodstock—two era-defining events that are not entirely coincidental. Neil M. Maher shows how NASA’s celestial aspirations were tethered to terrestrial concerns of the time: the civil rights struggle, the antiwar movement, environmentalism, feminism, and the culture wars.


Great Women in the Struggle

Filename: great-women-in-the-struggle.pdf
ISBN: 0940975270
Release Date: 1991
Number of pages: 107
Author: Toyomi Igus
Publisher: Just Us Books Incorporated

Download and read online Great Women in the Struggle in PDF and EPUB Profiles over 80 contemporary and historical Black women noted in such occupations as freedom fighters, educators, performing artists, athletes, lawyers, and scientists


Black Lives Matter

Filename: black-lives-matter.pdf
ISBN: 9781680771091
Release Date: 2016-01-01
Number of pages: 112
Author: Edwards, Sue Bradford
Publisher: ABDO

Download and read online Black Lives Matter in PDF and EPUB Black Lives Matter covers the shootings that touched off passionate protests, the work of activists to bring about a more just legal system, and the tensions in US society that these events have brought to light. Aligned to Common Core Standards and correlated to state standards. Essential Library is an imprint of Abdo Publishing, a division of ABDO.


What s It Like in Space

Filename: what-s-it-like-in-space.pdf
ISBN: 9781452148717
Release Date: 2016-04-05
Number of pages: 128
Author: Ariel Waldman
Publisher: Chronicle Books

Download and read online What s It Like in Space in PDF and EPUB Everyone wonders what it's really like in space, but very few of us have ever had the chance to experience it firsthand. This captivating illustrated collection brings together stories from dozens of international astronauts—men and women who've actually been there—who have returned with accounts of the sometimes weird, often funny, and awe-inspiring sensations and realities of being in space. With playful artwork accompanying each, here are the real stories behind backwards dreams, "moon face," the tricks of sleeping in zero gravity and aiming your sneeze during a spacewalk, the importance of packing hot sauce, and dozens of other cosmic quirks and amazements that come with travel in and beyond low Earth orbit.


Hidden Figures Young Readers Edition

Filename: hidden-figures-young-readers-edition.pdf
ISBN: 9780062662392
Release Date: 2016-11-29
Number of pages: 240
Author: Margot Lee Shetterly
Publisher: HarperCollins

Download and read online Hidden Figures Young Readers Edition in PDF and EPUB The uplifting, amazing true story—a New York Times bestseller This edition of Margot Lee Shetterly’s acclaimed book is perfect for young readers. It is the powerful story of four African-American female mathematicians at NASA who helped achieve some of the greatest moments in our space program. Now a major motion picture starring Taraji P. Henson, Octavia Spencer, Janelle Monae, Kirsten Dunst, and Kevin Costner. Before John Glenn orbited the earth, or Neil Armstrong walked on the moon, a group of dedicated female mathematicians known as “human computers” used pencils, slide rules, and adding machines to calculate the numbers that would launch rockets, and astronauts, into space. This book brings to life the stories of Dorothy Vaughan, Mary Jackson, Katherine Johnson, and Christine Darden, who lived through the Civil Rights era, the Space Race, the Cold War, and the movement for gender equality, and whose work forever changed the face of NASA and the country.