Download and read online Eco evolutionary Dynamics in PDF and EPUB In recent years, scientists have realized that evolution can occur on timescales much shorter than the "long lapse of ages" emphasized by Darwin—in fact, evolutionary change is occurring all around us all the time. This book provides an authoritative and accessible introduction to eco-evolutionary dynamics, a cutting-edge new field that seeks to unify evolution and ecology into a common conceptual framework focusing on rapid and dynamic environmental and evolutionary change. Andrew Hendry covers key aspects of evolution, ecology, and their interactions. Topics range from natural selection, adaptive divergence, ecological speciation, and gene flow to population and community dynamics, ecosystem function, plasticity, and genomics. Hendry evaluates conceptual and methodological approaches, and draws on empirical data from natural populations—including those in human-disturbed environments—to tackle a number of classic and emerging research questions. He also discusses exciting new directions for future research at the intersection of ecology and evolution. An invaluable guide for students and researchers alike, Eco-evolutionary Dynamics reveals how evolution and ecology interact strongly on short timescales to shape the world we see around us.
Download and read online Eco Evolutionary Dynamics in PDF and EPUB In recent years, scientists have realized that evolution can occur on timescales much shorter than the "long lapse of ages" emphasized by Darwin--in fact, evolutionary change is occurring all around us all the time. This book provides an authoritative and accessible introduction to eco-evolutionary dynamics, a cutting-edge new field that seeks to unify evolution and ecology into a common conceptual framework focusing on rapid and dynamic environmental and evolutionary change. Andrew Hendry covers key aspects of evolution, ecology, and their interactions. Topics range from natural selection, adaptive divergence, ecological speciation, and gene flow to population and community dynamics, ecosystem function, plasticity, and genomics. Hendry evaluates conceptual and methodological approaches, and draws on empirical data from natural populations--including those in human-disturbed environments--to tackle a number of classic and emerging research questions. He also discusses exciting new directions for future research at the intersection of ecology and evolution. An invaluable guide for students and researchers alike, "Eco-evolutionary Dynamics" reveals how evolution and ecology interact strongly on short timescales to shape the world we see around us.
Download and read online Eco Evolutionary Dynamics in PDF and EPUB The theme of this volume is to discuss Eco-evolutionary Dynamics. Updates and informs the reader on the latest research findings Written by leading experts in the field Highlights areas for future investigation
Download and read online Multiscale Structure in Eco evolutionary Dynamics in PDF and EPUB
Download and read online Eco evolutionary dynamics of structured and niche constructing populations in PDF and EPUB
Download and read online The Eco evolutionary Dynamics of Extrachromosomal Elements in Environmental Vibrio in PDF and EPUB Plasmids and other extrachromosomal elements (ECEs) are recognized as key factors mediating horizontal gene transfer; however, their diversity and dynamics among ecologically structured host populations in the wild remains poorly understood. Here we take a population-genomic approach to determine carriage of different types of ECEs in a recently established model for ecologically and genetically cohesive bacterial populations, asking whether different ECE types (i) are primarily associated to host phylogeny or ecology, (ii) have distinct transfer (and loss) patterns, and (iii) display different microevolutionary dynamics. We employed two models of environmental bacterial populations: a Vibrio cholerae population isolated from a coastal brackish pond (Oyster Pond, Woods Hole, MA), and diverse co-existing Vibrio populations comprising several species from Plum Island Sound (Ipswich, MA). High frequency (>40%) of a novel filamentous phage, VCYD, was detected in a collection of 531 isolates of V. cholerae. VCYD occurs both in the host-genome integrative form (IF) and a plasmid-like replicative form (RF). The relative frequency of each form differed among isolates from portions of the pond displaying different salinities, suggesting potential impact of host habitat on the biology of bacteriophages. Using the second model, we isolated 187 ECEs from 660 isolates previously categorized into 25 different ecologically and genetically cohesive populations. We identified the following elements: 22 bacteriophages, and 24 conjugative, 38 mobilizable and 103 so-called non-transmissible ECEs. While mobilizable ECEs require co-occurring conjugative plasmids for successful transfer, non-transmissible ECEs do not encode any genes for self-transfer. We further found that ECEs were significantly enriched in free-living cells, suggesting association of ECEs with host environment. The finding of phage as a major and stable ECE component is surprising and the absence of any integrase genes suggests that these are lysogens that do not integrate into the host genome. Finally, our data show that a type of plasmids previously defined as "non-transmissible" appears to be most common among Vibrio ECEs and that they have been transferred recently and frequently among distantly related populations through mechanisms yet to be uncovered. Overall, this study suggests a dynamic mobile gene pool with high turnover among host populations.
Download and read online Pillars of Evolution in PDF and EPUB Pillars of Evolution provides a fresh and provocative perspective on adaptive evolution. Readers new to the study of evolution will find a refreshing new insight that establishes evolutionary biology as a rigorous and predictive science, whilst practicing biologists will discover a provocative book that challenges traditional approaches. The book begins by leading readers through the mechanics of heredity, reproduction, movement, survival, and development. With that framework in place, it then explores the numerous ways that traits emerge from the interactions between genetics, development, and the environment. The key message is that adaptive changes in traits (and their underlying allelic frequencies) evolve through the traits' functions and their connection with fitness. The complex mappings from genes-to-traits-to-fitness are characterized in the structure of evolution. A single "structure matrix" describes why individuals vary in the values of adaptive traits, their ability to perform the function of those traits, and in the fitness they accrue. Fitness depends on how organisms interact with and perceive their environment in time and space. These relationships are made explicit in spatial, temporal, and organizational scale that also sets the stage for the crucially important role that ecology always plays in evolution. The ecological hallmarks of density- and frequency-dependent interactions allow the authors to explore new and exciting insights into evolution's dynamics. The theories and principles are then brought together in a final synthesis on adaptation. The book's unique approach unites genetic, development, and environmental influences into a single comprehensive treatment of the eco-evolutionary process.
Download and read online Eco evolutionary Dynamics in a Coastal Marsh Sedge Resurrected from a Century long Seed Bank in PDF and EPUB
Download and read online Eco evolutionary Dynamics in Host virus Systems in PDF and EPUB
Download and read online From Occurrence to Eco evolutionary Dynamics Assessing Connectivity in a Changing World Through Modelling and Landscape Genetics in PDF and EPUB
Download and read online The Evolutionary Strategies that Shape Ecosystems in PDF and EPUB In 1837 a young Charles Darwin took his notebook, wrote "I think" and then sketched a rudimentary, stick-like tree. Each branch of Darwin's tree of life told a story of survival and adaptation – adaptation of animals and plants not just to the environment but also to life with other living things. However, more than 150 years since Darwin published his singular idea of natural selection, the science of ecology has yet to account for how contrasting evolutionary outcomes affect the ability of organisms to coexist in communities and to regulate ecosystem functioning. In this book Philip Grime and Simon Pierce explain how evidence from across the world is revealing that, beneath the wealth of apparently limitless and bewildering variation in detailed structure and functioning, the essential biology of all organisms is subject to the same set of basic interacting constraints on life-history and physiology. The inescapable resulting predicament during the evolution of every species is that, according to habitat, each must adopt a predictable compromise with regard to how they use the resources at their disposal in order to survive. The compromise involves the investment of resources in either the effort to acquire more resources, the tolerance of factors that reduce metabolic performance, or reproduction. This three-way trade-off is the irreducible core of the universal adaptive strategy theory which Grime and Pierce use to investigate how two environmental filters selecting, respectively, for convergence and divergence in organism function determine the identity of organisms in communities, and ultimately how different evolutionary strategies affect the functioning of ecosystems. This book reflects an historic phase in which evolutionary processes are finally moving centre stage in the effort to unify ecological theory, and animal, plant and microbial ecology have begun to find a common theoretical framework. Visit www.wiley.com/go/grime/evolutionarystrategies to access the artwork from the book.
Download and read online Experimental Tests of Rapid Eco evolutionary Dynamics in a Plant herbivore System in PDF and EPUB I then tested whether rapid evolution significantly impacts population dynamics in the wild. Evolving populations grew significantly faster, up to 42%, and reached up to 67% higher densities compared to non-evolving controls even in the face of environmental variation. Yet evolution only had this impact in the natural uncaged treatments highlighting that ecological context alters the strength of eco-evolutionary dynamics.
Download and read online Eco Evolutionary Dynamics of Episomes Among Ecologically Cohesive Bacterial Populations in PDF and EPUB Although plasmids and other episomes are recognized as key players in horizontal gene transfer among microbes, their diversity and dynamics among ecologically structured host populations in the wild remain poorly understood. Here, we show that natural populations of marine Vibrionaceae bacteria host large numbers of families of episomes, consisting of plasmids and a surprisingly high fraction of plasmid-like temperate phages. Episomes are unevenly distributed among host populations, and contrary to the notion that high-density communities in biofilms act as hot spots of gene transfer, we identified a strong bias for episomes to occur in free-living as opposed to particle-attached cells. Mapping of episomal families onto host phylogeny shows that, with the exception of all phage and a few plasmid families, most are of recent evolutionary origin and appear to have spread rapidly by horizontal transfer. Such high eco-evolutionary turnover is particularly surprising for plasmids that are, based on previously suggested categorization, putatively nontransmissible, indicating that this type of plasmid is indeed frequently transferred by currently unknown mechanisms. Finally, analysis of recent gene transfer among plasmids reveals a network of extensive exchange connecting nearly all episomes. Genes functioning in plasmid transfer and maintenance are frequently exchanged, suggesting that plasmids can be rapidly transformed from one category to another. The broad distribution of episomes among distantly related hosts and the observed promiscuous recombination patterns show how episomes can offer their hosts rapid assembly and dissemination of novel functions.
Download and read online Effects of Environmental Change on the Eco evolutionary Dynamics of Species in Natural Microcosm Communities in PDF and EPUB Natural communities are expected to undergo shifts in composition and species interactions as a result of environmental change, such as changes to regional temperature regimes and increased nutrient input into ecosystems. Predicting how communities will respond is complicated by three factors: non-additive effects of multiple stressors, differences in response among trophic levels, and trait evolution leading to adaptation. This study addressed all three of these factors using a natural microcosm community. The purple pitcher plant, Sarracenia purpurea, is a carnivorous plant that retains rainwater inside of its cup-shaped leaves. Within this water, an inquiline community of microbes and invertebrate larvae forms. I used a subset of this community consisting of a single protist species, Colpidium sp., and a community of bacteria to explore how the interaction between temperature and increased nutrient input affects different trophic levels ecologically and evolutionarily. I factorially manipulated temperature and nutrient input and maintained these conditions for 28 days (~150 protozoan generations). I then performed reciprocal transplants to each treatment, resulting in four common garden environments to test how evolutionary effects may depend upon ecological context. I found that historic nutrient input levels affected two protist traits – cell size and peak density – but the magnitude of these effects depended on the contemporary environment. The combined effects of historical temperature and nutrients did not differ significantly from the expected additive effect. Protist and bacterial abundances differed in their response to treatments, with protist abundance affected by both historical and contemporary environments while bacterial abundance was only affected by contemporary environment. Finally, bacterial community composition was affected by treatments both directly and indirectly, through their effects on protist traits and abundance. The results of this study show that the ways in which communities respond to environmental change can differ in light of evolutionary responses, the trophic levels being considered, and additivity of multiple stressors. The future success of management and conservation of natural systems rests upon the best possible understanding of not only the ecological implications but also, and perhaps even more importantly, the evolutionary consequences of a changing abiotic environment.
Download and read online The Evolution of Landscape Structure in PDF and EPUB Recent work in model systems has demonstrated significant effects of rapid evolutionary change on ecological processes (eco-evolutionary dynamics). However, few studies have addressed whether eco-evolutionary dynamics structure natural ecosystems. I investigated landscape scale variation in the frequency of serotiny in Rocky Mountain lodgepole pine ( Pinus contorta subsp. latifolia ), a widespread species in which postfire seedling density and ecosystem structure are largely determined by serotiny. Serotiny, the retention of mature seeds in cones in a canopy seed bank, is a heritable trait that is an adaptation to stand-replacing fire. Less attention has been paid to the potential selective effects of seed predation on serotiny. For lodgepole pine, seed losses due to pre-dispersal seed predation by the American red squirrel (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus ) can be extreme. Furthermore, serotinous cones are more exposed to pre-dispersal predation than non-serotinous cones, suggesting the potential for selection against serotiny. I hypothesized that spatial variation in serotiny in lodgepole pine forests results from variation in conflicting directional selection from fire and seed predation. I present data from the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem showing that serotiny is uncommon where fire return intervals are long (ca. 280-310 years) but is of variable frequency where fire return intervals are shorter (ca. 135-185 years), and that much of this variance is explained by variation in the intensity of seed predation. I also show that seed predation rates of serotinous cones are higher than those of non-serotinous cones, indicating selection against serotiny from seed predators. Finally, I use simulation modeling to show that the predation rates I report exert strong selection against serotiny and could produce the patterns observed in the field. These results suggest that contemporary patterns in serotiny reflect evolution in response to conflicting selection pressures from fire and seed predation. Consequently, spatial patterns in ecosystem structure and function in lodgepole pine forests likely result from an eco-evolutionary dynamic driven by spatial variation in two opposing selective forces.