Download and read online Biophysics of Computation in PDF and EPUB Neural network research often builds on the fiction that neurons are simple linear threshold units, completely neglecting the highly dynamic and complex nature of synapses, dendrites, and voltage-dependent ionic currents. Biophysics of Computation: Information Processing in Single Neurons challenges this notion, using richly detailed experimental and theoretical findings from cellular biophysics to explain the repertoire of computational functions available to single neurons. The author shows how individual nerve cells can multiply, integrate, or delay synaptic inputs and how information can be encoded in the voltage across the membrane, in the intracellular calcium concentration, or in the timing of individual spikes.Key topics covered include the linear cable equation; cable theory as applied to passive dendritic trees and dendritic spines; chemical and electrical synapses and how to treat them from a computational point of view; nonlinear interactions of synaptic input in passive and active dendritic trees; the Hodgkin-Huxley model of action potential generation and propagation; phase space analysis; linking stochastic ionic channels to membrane-dependent currents; calcium and potassium currents and their role in information processing; the role of diffusion, buffering and binding of calcium, and other messenger systems in information processing and storage; short- and long-term models of synaptic plasticity; simplified models of single cells; stochastic aspects of neuronal firing; the nature of the neuronal code; and unconventional models of sub-cellular computation.Biophysics of Computation: Information Processing in Single Neurons serves as an ideal text for advanced undergraduate and graduate courses in cellular biophysics, computational neuroscience, and neural networks, and will appeal to students and professionals in neuroscience, electrical and computer engineering, and physics.
Download and read online Biophysics of Computation in PDF and EPUB Neural network research often builds on the fiction that neurons are simple linear threshold units, completely neglecting the highly dynamic and complex nature of synapses, dendrites, and voltage-dependent ionic currents. Biophysics of Computation: Information Processing in Single Neurons challenges this notion, using richly detailed experimental and theoretical findings from cellular biophysics to explain the repertoire of computational functions available to single neurons. The author shows how individual nerve cells can multiply, integrate, or delay synaptic inputs and how information can be encoded in the voltage across the membrane, in the intracellular calcium concentration, or in the timing of individual spikes. Key topics covered include the linear cable equation; cable theory as applied to passive dendritic trees and dendritic spines; chemical and electrical synapses and how to treat them from a computational point of view; nonlinear interactions of synaptic input in passive and active dendritic trees; the Hodgkin-Huxley model of action potential generation and propagation; phase space analysis; linking stochastic ionic channels to membrane-dependent currents; calcium and potassium currents and their role in information processing; the role of diffusion, buffering and binding of calcium, and other messenger systems in information processing and storage; short- and long-term models of synaptic plasticity; simplified models of single cells; stochastic aspects of neuronal firing; the nature of the neuronal code; and unconventional models of sub-cellular computation. Biophysics of Computation: Information Processing in Single Neurons serves as an ideal text for advanced undergraduate and graduate courses in cellular biophysics, computational neuroscience, and neural networks, and will appeal to students and professionals in neuroscience, electrical and computer engineering, and physics.
Download and read online Computational Neuroscience in PDF and EPUB The thirty original contributions in this book provide a working definition of "computational neuroscience" as the area in which problems lie simultaneously within computer science and neuroscience. They review this emerging field in historical and philosophical overviews and in stimulating summaries of recent results. Leading researchers address the structure of the brain and the computational problems associated with describing and understanding this structure at the synaptic, neural, map, and system levels.The overview chapters discuss the early days of the field, provide a philosophical analysis of the problems associated with confusion between brain metaphor and brain theory, and take up the scope and structure of computational neuroscience.Synaptic-level structure is addressed in chapters that relate the properties of dendritic branches, spines, and synapses to the biophysics of computation and provide a connection between real neuron architectures and neural network simulations.The network-level chapters take up the preattentive perception of 3-D forms, oscillation in neural networks, the neurobiological significance of new learning models, and the analysis of neural assemblies and local learning rides.Map-level structure is explored in chapters on the bat echolocation system, cat orientation maps, primate stereo vision cortical cognitive maps, dynamic remapping in primate visual cortex, and computer-aided reconstruction of topographic and columnar maps in primates.The system-level chapters focus on the oculomotor system VLSI models of early vision, schemas for high-level vision, goal-directed movements, modular learning, effects of applied electric current fields on cortical neural activity neuropsychological studies of brain and mind, and an information-theoretic view of analog representation in striate cortex.Eric L. Schwartz is Professor of Brain Research and Research Professor of Computer Science, Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University Medical Center. Computational Neuroscience is included in the System Development Foundation Benchmark Series.
Download and read online Dendrites in PDF and EPUB Dendrites form the major receiving part of neurons. It is within these highly complex, branching structures that the real work of the nervous system takes place. The dendrites of neurons receive thousands of synaptic inputs from other neurons. However, dendrites do more than simply collect and funnel these signals to the soma and axon; they shape and integrate the inputs in complex ways. Despite being discovered over a century ago, dendrites received little research attention until the early 1950s. Over the past few years there has been a dramatic explosion of interest in the function of these beautiful structures. Recent new research has developed out understanding of the properties of dendrites, and their role in neuronal function. The first edition of Dendrites was a landmark in the literature, stimulating and guiding further research. The new edition substantially updates the earlier volume, and includes 5 new chapters and color illustrations. It gathers new information on dendrites into a single volume, with contributions written by leading researchers in the field. It presents a survey of the current state of our knowledge of dendrites, from their morphology and development through to their electrical, chemical, and computational properties. As such it will not only be of interest to researchers and graduate-level students in neuroscience, but will also be useful to researchers in computer science and IT, psychology, physiology, and biophysics.
Download and read online Computational Biophysics of the Skin in PDF and EPUB The accessibility of the skin in vivo has resulted in the development of non-invasive methods in the past 40 years that offer accurate measurements of skin properties and structures from microscopic to macroscopic levels. However, the mechanisms involved in these properties are still only partly understood. Similar to many other domains, including biomedical engineering, numerical modeling has appeared as a complementary key actor for improving our knowledge of skin physiology. This book presents, for the first time, the contributions that focus on scientific computing and numerical modeling to offer a deeper understanding of the mechanisms involved in skin physiology. The book is structured around some skin properties and functions, including optical and biomechanical properties and skin barrier function and homeostasis, with—for each of them—several chapters that describe either biological or physical models at different scales.
Download and read online Computational Cell Biology in PDF and EPUB This textbook provides an introduction to dynamic modeling in molecular cell biology, taking a computational and intuitive approach. Detailed illustrations, examples, and exercises are included throughout the text. Appendices containing mathematical and computational techniques are provided as a reference tool.
Download and read online Self Organizing Neural Networks in PDF and EPUB The Self-Organizing Map (SOM) is one of the most frequently used architectures for unsupervised artificial neural networks. Introduced by Teuvo Kohonen in the 1980s, SOMs have been developed as a very powerful method for visualization and unsupervised classification tasks by an active and innovative community of interna tional researchers. A number of extensions and modifications have been developed during the last two decades. The reason is surely not that the original algorithm was imperfect or inad equate. It is rather the universal applicability and easy handling of the SOM. Com pared to many other network paradigms, only a few parameters need to be arranged and thus also for a beginner the network leads to useful and reliable results. Never theless there is scope for improvements and sophisticated new developments as this book impressively demonstrates. The number of published applications utilizing the SOM appears to be unending. As the title of this book indicates, the reader will benefit from some of the latest the oretical developments and will become acquainted with a number of challenging real-world applications. Our aim in producing this book has been to provide an up to-date treatment of the field of self-organizing neural networks, which will be ac cessible to researchers, practitioners and graduated students from diverse disciplines in academics and industry. We are very grateful to the father of the SOMs, Professor Teuvo Kohonen for sup porting this book and contributing the first chapter.
Download and read online Cognitive Neuroscience in PDF and EPUB ""Cognitive Neuroscience" is a very nice volume, with excellent contributors and timely topics. The chapters are, without exception, well-written and do an excellent job of surveying their field. The authors themselves are an impressive set of scientists. This is a superb collection that will be widely read." -- Martha Farah, Professor of Psychology, University of Pennsylvania Researchers in the new discipline of cognitive neuroscience combine the concepts and methods of cognitive psychology, neuropsychology, and neurophysiology in an attempt to understand the brains role in cognitive functions. The nine chapters of this book, written by leading authorities in their fields, cover major topics in cognitive neuroscience, including noninvasive measurement of human brain activity, neural information coding, neural mechanisms of memory and movement, working memory, language, and consciousness. Contributors: Anders Dale, Howard Eichenbaum, David Fotheringhame, Karl Friston, Chris Frith, Apostolos Georgopoulos, David Howard, John Ionides, Stefan Kohler, Marta Kutas, Morris Moscovitch, Bill Phillips, Matthew Shapiro, Edward Smith, Malcolm Young
Download and read online Biophysics of Consciousness in PDF and EPUB The problem of how the brain produces consciousness, subjectivity and "something it is like to be" remains one of the greatest challenges to a complete science of the natural world. While various scientists and philosophers approach the problem from their own unique perspectives and in the terms of their own respective fields, Biophysics of Consciousness: A Foundational Approach attempts a consilience across disparate disciplines to explain how it is possible that an objective brain produces subjective experience. This volume unites the crème de la crème of physicists, neuroscientists, and psychiatrists in the attempt to understand consciousness through a foundational approach encompassing ontological, evolutionary, neurobiological, and Freudian interpretations with the focus on conscious phenomena occurring in the brain. By integrating the perspectives of these diverse disciplines with the latest research and theories on the biophysics of the brain, the book tries to explain how consciousness can be an adaptive and causal element in the natural world.
Download and read online Computational Photochemistry in PDF and EPUB Computational Photochemistry, Volume 16 provides an overview of general strategies currently used to investigate photochemical processes. Whilst contributing to establishing a branch of computational chemistry that deals with the properties and reactivity of photoexcited molecules, the book also provides insight into the conceptual and methodological research lines in computational photochemistry. Packed with examples of applications of modelling of basic photochemical reactions and the computer-aided development of novel materials in the field of photodegradation (paints), photoprotection (sunscreens), color regulation (photochromic devices) and fluorescent probes, this book is particularly useful to anyone interested in the effect of light on molecules and materials. * Provides an overview of computational photochemistry, dealing with principles and applications * Demonstrates techniques that can be used in the computer-aided design of novel photo responsive materials * Written by experts in computational photochemistry
Download and read online Developability of Biotherapeutics in PDF and EPUB Biopharmaceuticals are emerging as frontline medicines to combat several life-threatening and chronic diseases. However, such medicines are expensive to develop and produce on a commercial scale, contributing to rising healthcare costs. Developability of Biotherapeutics: Computational Approaches describes applications of computational and molecular modeling techniques that improve the overall process of discovery and development by removing empiricism. The concept of developability involves making rational choices at the pre-clinical stages of biopharmaceutical drug development that could positively impact clinical outcomes. The book also addresses a general lack of awareness of the many different contributions that computation can make to biopharmaceutical drug development. This informative and practical reference is a valuable resource for professionals engaged in industrial research and development, scientists working with regulatory agencies, and pharmacy, medicine, and life science students and educators. It focuses primarily on the developability of monoclonal antibody candidates, but the principles described can also be extended to other modalities such as recombinant proteins, fusion proteins, antibody drug conjugates and vaccines. The book is organized into two sections. The first discusses principles and applications of computational approaches toward discovering and developing biopharmaceutical drugs. The second presents best practices in developability assessments of early-stage biopharmaceutical drug candidates. In addition to raising awareness of the promise of computational research, this book also discusses solutions required to improve the success rate of translating biologic drug candidates into products available in the clinic. As such, it is a rich source of information on current principles and practices as well as a starting point for finding innovative applications of computation towards biopharmaceutical drug development.
Download and read online Neuroscience in PDF and EPUB This book will be of interest to anyone who wishes to know what role mathematics can play in attempting to comprehend the dynamics of the human brain. It also aims to serve as a general introduction to neuromathematics. The book gives the reader a qualitative understanding and working knowledge of useful mathematical applications to the field of neuroscience. The book is readable by those who have little knowledge of mathematics for neuroscience but are committed to begin acquiring such knowledge.
Download and read online Algorithms in Structural Molecular Biology in PDF and EPUB Using the tools of information technology to understand the molecular machinery of the cell offers both challenges and opportunities to computational scientists. Over the past decade, novel algorithms have been developed both for analyzing biological data and for synthetic biology problems such as protein engineering. This book explains the algorithmic foundations and computational approaches underlying areas of structural biology including NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance); X-ray crystallography; and the design and analysis of proteins, peptides, and small molecules.Each chapter offers a concise overview of important concepts, focusing on a key topic in the field. Four chapters offer a short course in algorithmic and computational issues related to NMR structural biology, giving the reader a useful toolkit with which to approach the fascinating yet thorny computational problems in this area. A recurrent theme is understanding the interplay between biophysical experiments and computational algorithms. The text emphasizes the mathematical foundations of structural biology while maintaining a balance between algorithms and a nuanced understanding of experimental data. Three emerging areas, particularly fertile ground for research students, are highlighted: NMR methodology, design of proteins and other molecules, and the modeling of protein flexibility.The next generation of computational structural biologists will need training in geometric algorithms, provably good approximation algorithms, scientific computation, and an array of techniques for handling noise and uncertainty in combinatorial geometry and computational biophysics. This book is an essential guide for young scientists on their way to research success in this exciting field.
Download and read online Signal Processing for Neuroscientists A Companion Volume in PDF and EPUB The popularity of signal processing in neuroscience is increasing, and with the current availability and development of computer hardware and software, it is anticipated that the current growth will continue. Because electrode fabrication has improved and measurement equipment is getting less expensive, electrophysiological measurements with large numbers of channels are now very common. In addition, neuroscience has entered the age of light, and fluorescence measurements are fully integrated into the researcher’s toolkit. Because each image in a movie contains multiple pixels, these measurements are multi-channel by nature. Furthermore, the availability of both generic and specialized software packages for data analysis has altered the neuroscientist’s attitude toward some of the more complex analysis techniques. This book is a companion to the previously published Signal Processing for Neuroscientists: An Introduction to the Analysis of Physiological Signals, which introduced readers to the basic concepts. It discusses several advanced techniques, rediscovers methods to describe nonlinear systems, and examines the analysis of multi-channel recordings. Covers the more advanced topics of linear and nonlinear systems analysis and multi-channel analysis Includes practical examples implemented in MATLAB Provides multiple references to the basics to help the student
Download and read online Integral Biomathics in PDF and EPUB Perhaps the most distinct question in science throughout the ages has been the one of perceivable reality, treated both in physics and philosophy. Reality is acting upon us, and we, and life in general, are acting upon reality. Potentiality, found both in quantum reality and in the activity of life, plays a key role. In quantum reality observation turns potentiality into reality. Again, life computes possibilities in various ways based on past actions, and acts on the basis of these computations. This book is about a new approach to biology (and physics, of course!). Its subtitle suggests a perpetual movement and interplay between two elusive aspects of modern science — reality/matter and potentiality/mind, between physics and biology — both captured and triggered by mathematics — to understand and explain emergence, development and life all the way up to consciousness. But what is the real/potential difference between living and non-living matter? How does time in potentiality differ from time in reality? What we need to understand these differences is an integrative approach. This book contemplates how to encircle life to obtain a formal system, equivalent to the ones in physics. Integral Biomathics attempts to explore the interplay between reality and potentiality.