Download and read online Antimicrobial Resistance in Developing Countries in PDF and EPUB Avoiding infection has always been expensive. Some human populations escaped tropical infections by migrating into cold climates but then had to procure fuel, warm clothing, durable housing, and crops from a short growing season. Waterborne infections were averted by owning your own well or supporting a community reservoir. Everyone got vaccines in rich countries, while people in others got them later if at all. Antimicrobial agents seemed at first to be an exception. They did not need to be delivered through a cold chain and to everyone, as vaccines did. They had to be given only to infected patients and often then as relatively cheap injectables or pills off a shelf for only a few days to get astonishing cures. Antimicrobials not only were better than most other innovations but also reached more of the world’s people sooner. The problem appeared later. After each new antimicrobial became widely used, genes expressing resistance to it began to emerge and spread through bacterial populations. Patients infected with bacteria expressing such resistance genes then failed treatment and remained infected or died. Growing resistance to antimicrobial agents began to take away more and more of the cures that the agents had brought.
Download and read online Antibiotic Resistance in PDF and EPUB Antibiotic Resistance: Mechanisms and New Antimicrobial Approaches discusses up-to-date knowledge in mechanisms of antibiotic resistance and all recent advances in fighting microbial resistance such as the applications of nanotechnology, plant products, bacteriophages, marine products, algae, insect-derived products, and other alternative methods that can be applied to fight bacterial infections. Understanding fundamental mechanisms of antibiotic resistance is a key step in the discovery of effective methods to cope with resistance. This book also discusses methods used to fight antibiotic-resistant infection based on a deep understanding of the mechanisms involved in the development of the resistance. Discusses methods used to fight antibiotic-resistant infection based on a deep understanding of mechanisms involved in the development of the resistance Provides information on modern methods used to fight antibiotic resistance Covers a wide range of alternative methods to fight bacterial resistance, offering the most complete information available Discusses both newly emerging trends and traditionally applied methods to fight antibiotic resistant infections in light of recent scientific developments Offers the most up-to-date information in fighting antibiotic resistance Includes involvement of contributors all across the world, presenting questions of interest to readers of both developed and developing countries
Download and read online Antimicrobial Resistance in PDF and EPUB Preventing, controlling and treating drug-resistant infections is one of the major challenges in modern medicine. Antimicrobial Resistance goes beyond simple definitions and microbiological data to fully explore this rapidly changing area, describing evidence for effective interventions, costs, treatment strategies and directions for future research.Each chapter provides essential background and examines the evidence for an important aspect of prevention and control, treatment strategy or policy decision. Prevention and control strategies are analyzed for inappropriate antimicrobial use, fluoroquinolone-resistant organisms, health-care associated infections and parasitic diseases. Furthermore, treatment strategies for changing resistance patterns are explored for community-acquired pneumonia during an influenza pandemic and infections with community-associated MRSA, extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing organisms and fungi. Data for policy making are presented in articles that detail the costs of antimicrobial-resistant infections in healthcare settings and the threat of resistance with the introduction of antiretroviral therapy for large populations in the developing world. These reviews show where interventions, surveillance and research will be most useful in the future. Antimicrobial Resistance is an invaluable contribution for infectious disease physicians and public health officials who are interested in the prevention of antimicrobial-resistant infections.
Download and read online Travelers Diarrhea in PDF and EPUB In Travelers' Diarrhea, 2e, a team of medical experts brings you up-to-date on the pathogenesis and state-of-the-art management of travelers' diarrhea. Selected for their expertise in infectious diseases, the contributors also relate a thorough history of travelers' diarrhea, a basic understanding of the discipline, and a look at the future. Substantial understanding of the risks of acquiring travelers' diarrhea exists and we continue to learn about differences in host susceptibility. Updated information on the growing area of travelers' diarrhea is included.
Download and read online Surveying Antimicrobial Resistance Approaches Issues and Challenges to Overcome in PDF and EPUB Why Antibiotic Resistance? The use of antibiotics in human and veterinary medicine may have consequences beyond their intended applications. The “One Health” concept recognizes that the health of humans is connected to the health of animals and the environment. Progress in molecular genetics is facilitating the rapid evaluation of the essentiality of these targets on a genomic scale. In 2015, a group of researchers established the International Conference on Antibiotic Resistance (IC2AR).The primary objective of this meeting is to bring together scientists involved in antibiotic resistance prevention and control. The IC2AR conducted its inaugural world congress in January 2015 at Caparica (Portugal). Antimicrobial resistance presents a significant challenge to scientists in the field of infectious diseases. The full knowledge of how antibiotics resistance is evolving and being transmitted between hosts in different ecosystems is taking on great importance. Necessary action includes research to define the scope of the problem including its various sources. This eBook comprises a series of original research and review articles dealing with the epidemiology of resistance in animal and zoonotic pathogens, mobile elements containing resistance genes, the omics of antimicrobial resistance, emerging antimicrobial resistance mechanisms, control of resistant infections, establishing antimicrobial use and resistance surveillance systems, and alternatives strategies to overcome the problem of antimicrobial resistance worldwide. Gilberto Igrejas, José Luis Capelo and Patrícia Poeta Scientific Committee of IC2AR, February 20th, 2017
Download and read online One Health and the Politics of Antimicrobial Resistance in PDF and EPUB Zoonoses—infectious diseases, such as SARS and mad cow, that originate in animals and spread to humans—reveal how intimately animal and human health are linked. Complicating this relationship further, when livestock are given antibiotics to increase growth, it can lead to resistant bacteria. Unfortunately, there are few formal channels for practitioners of human medicine and veterinary medicine to communicate about threats to public health. To address this problem, Dr. Laura H. Kahn and her colleagues are promoting the One Health concept, which seeks to increase communication and collaboration between professionals in human, animal, and environmental health. In One Health and the Politics of Antimicrobial Resistance, Dr. Kahn investigates the use of antibiotics and the surge in antimicrobial resistance in food animals and humans from a One Health perspective. Although the medical community has blamed the problem on agricultural practices, the agricultural community insists that antibiotic resistance is the result of indiscriminate use of antibiotics in human medicine. Dr. Kahn argues that this blame game has fueled the politics of antibiotic resistance and hindered the development of effective policies to address the worsening crisis. Combining painstaking research with unprecedented access to international data, the book analyzes the surprising outcomes of differing policy approaches to antibiotic resistance around the globe. By integrating the perspectives of both medicine and agriculture and exploring the history and science behind the widespread use of growth-promoting antibiotics, One Health and the Politics of Antimicrobial Resistance examines the controversy in a unique way while offering policy recommendations that all sides can accept.
Download and read online Environment and Aquaculture in Developing Countries in PDF and EPUB
Download and read online Current Trends In Antibiotic Resistance In Infectious Diseases in PDF and EPUB This book contains ten chapters which cover current trends on antibiotic resistance in different parts of the world. Some of the chapters are dedicated to specific type of bacteria like marine and cholera associated microorganisms. Whereas rest of the chapters are mainly focused on the mechanism of drug resistance with special reference to beta lactamases. Since most of the antibiotics used to treat infections belong to b-lactam group which is lactam ring (2-lactam) or penam is a lactam with a heteroatomic ring structure, consisting of three carbon atoms and one nitrogen atom. A lactam is a cyclic amide.The main focus of this book is to understand the different molecular markers responsible for developing resistance against this group of antibiotics. CTX-M family of enzyme which hydrolyzes third generation of cephalosporins preferably, cefotaxime, belongs to the category of Extended-spectrum b-lactamases (ESBLs). These types of enzymes are emerging among Gram-negative bacteria; predominantly Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli and other species in different parts of the world. In the current scenario, the CTX-M family includes almost 40 variants. The blaTEM, and blaSHV are another important class of b-lactamases, most prevalent among enterobacteriacae which are also discussed in this book.
Download and read online Guide to Antimicrobial Use in Animals in PDF and EPUB The first book to offer practical guidelines on the prudent and rational use of antimicrobials in animals. Drawing on multidisciplinary expertise to offer independent scientific advice on a controversial area that is crucial to both human health and animal welfare. The earlier general chapters cover issues such as human health risks and the problems of resistance to antimicrobial drugs. The later specific chapters are dedicated to particular groups of animals. Has an emphasis on preserving the efficacy of antimicrobial drugs that are clinically important in human medicine Covers both companion animals and food animals, including aquaculture Suitable for veterinary practitioners working in small and large animal medicine, aquaculture and animal production, as well as veterinary students, academics and researchers. It will also be of interest to those more generally involved in veterinary public health and antimicrobial resistance.
Download and read online Bombs Bugs Drugs and Thugs in PDF and EPUB An examination of the present and future of American intelligence argues that despite America's resources, technology, and networks, the lack of central coordination allows information and communication failures.
Download and read online Antimicrobial Resistance in Wastewater Treatment Processes in PDF and EPUB Antimicrobial resistance is arguably the greatest threat to worldwide human health. This book evaluates the roles of human water use, treatment and conservation in the development and spread of antimicrobial resistance. Designed as a companion volume to Antimicrobial Resistance in the Environment (Wiley-Blackwell, 2012), this book is a multi-disciplinary synthesis of topics related to antimicrobial resistance and wastewater treatment processes. Antimicrobial Resistance in Wastewater Treatment Processes assembles detailed discussions written by many of the world's best-known experts in microbiology, civil engineering, chemistry, environmental science, public health and related fields. The book presents a collection of subjects that includes: Current knowledge of the role of the environment in development and spread of antimicrobial resistance Chemical analysis of antibiotics in environmental samples Molecular methods for analysis of antimicrobial resistance genes Advanced wastewater treatment processes and antimicrobial resistance effects Public perception of risk related to health consequences of antimicrobial resistance Public health implications of antimicrobial resistance with focus on wastewater treatment processes Antimicrobial resistance has gained a foothold in the global consciousness as a serious public health threat. There is a much greater appreciation for the role of the environment in the dissemination of antimicrobial resistance and the effects of pollutants that can potentially promote development of resistance in bacteria. Contaminants released from wastewater treatment plants are a concern. In Antimicrobial Resistance in Wastewater Treatment Processes, readers will be guided through examinations of the current science related to this important health issue.
Download and read online Antibiotic and Chemotherapy in PDF and EPUB Well-respected and widely regarded as the most comprehensive text in the field, Antibiotic and Chemotherapy, 9th Edition by Drs. Finch, Greenwood, Whitley, and Norrby, provides globally relevant coverage of all types of antimicrobial agents used in human medicine, including all antiviral, antiprotozoan and anthelminthic agents. Comprehensively updated to include new FDA and EMEA regulations, this edition keeps you current with brand-new information about antiretroviral agents and HIV, superficial and mucocutaneous myscoses and systemic infections, management of the immunocompromised patient, treatment of antimicrobial resistance, plus coverage of new anti-sepsis agents and host/microbe modulators. Reference is easy thanks to a unique 3-part structure covering general aspects of treatment; reviews of every agent; and details of treatments of particular infections. Offer the best possible care and information to your patients about the increasing problem of multi-drug resistance and the wide range of new antiviral therapies now available for the treatment of HIV and other viral infections. Stay current with 21 new chapters including the latest information on superficial and mucocutaneous mycoses, systemic infections, anti-retroviral agents, and HIV. Get fresh perspectives and insights thanks to 21 newly-authored and extensively re-written chapters. Easily access information thanks to a unique 3-part structure covering general aspects of treatment; reviews of every agent; and details of treatments of particular infections. Apply the latest treatments for anti-microbial organisms such as MRSA, and multi-drug resistant forms of TB, malaria and gonorrhea. Keep up on the latest FDA and EMEA regulations.
Download and read online Health Research in Developing Countries in PDF and EPUB Health research in developing countries has many facets. On one side, malaria and AIDS as main causes of morbidity and mortality are a focus for clinical and epidemiological studies. On the other side, the need for improving the health care system in general cannot be overestimated. The book offers a survey of current and important topics of health research in developing countries. Special emphasis is placed to show that cooperation of different health research areas if of highest importance in future. In addition the CRSN (Burkina Faso) - University of Heidelberg collaboration is given as a model that allows high class research in remote areas of any developing country. An absolutely must for all who are working in clinical, epidemiological and health systems research for and in developing countries.
Download and read online Bacterial Infections Advances in Research and Application 2012 Edition in PDF and EPUB Bacterial Infections—Advances in Research and Application: 2012 Edition is a ScholarlyEditions™ eBook that delivers timely, authoritative, and comprehensive information about Bacterial Infections. The editors have built Bacterial Infections—Advances in Research and Application: 2012 Edition on the vast information databases of ScholarlyNews.™ You can expect the information about Bacterial Infections in this eBook to be deeper than what you can access anywhere else, as well as consistently reliable, authoritative, informed, and relevant. The content of Bacterial Infections—Advances in Research and Application: 2012 Edition has been produced by the world’s leading scientists, engineers, analysts, research institutions, and companies. All of the content is from peer-reviewed sources, and all of it is written, assembled, and edited by the editors at ScholarlyEditions™ and available exclusively from us. You now have a source you can cite with authority, confidence, and credibility. More information is available at http://www.ScholarlyEditions.com/.
Download and read online Human Animal Medicine in PDF and EPUB Human-Animal Medicine is an innovative reference exploring the unprecedented convergence of human, animal, and environmental health, triggering global pandemics and requiring new clinical paradigms. The "One Health" approach calls for greater communication and cooperation between human health care providers, public health professionals, and veterinarians to better address vital issues of emerging diseases and environmental change. This incredibly timely book provides, for the first time, practical guidelines for "One Health" collaborations in a wide range of clinical human-animal health issues, including the H1N1 virus, zoonotic diseases, the human-animal bond, animal allergy, bites and stings, and animals as "sentinels" for toxic environmental health hazards. UNIQUE! For each condition, specific steps human health care providers, veterinarians, and public health professionals must take to prevent and manage disease. UNIQUE! Comparative tables of disease signs, diagnosis and treatment in humans and animals for easy reference. UNIQUE! Guidelines to detect and improve environmental factors affecting the health of humans and animals. Occupational health guidelines for preventive care of animal workers including veterinary personnel, farmers, pet store employees, and zoo workers. Treatment of emerging disease issues including zoonoses, H1N1 virus, harmful algae blooms, and animal-related pesticides UNIQUE! Sample protocols facilitate professional communication between veterinarians, human health clinicians, and public health professionals. Legal and ethical aspects of "One Health" that human health providers and veterinarians need to know.