Download and read online A Computable Universe in PDF and EPUB This volume discusses the foundations of computation in relation to nature. It focuses on two main questions: What is computation? and How does nature compute?
Download and read online Our Mathematical Universe in PDF and EPUB Max Tegmark leads us on an astonishing journey through past, present and future, and through the physics, astronomy and mathematics that are the foundation of his work, most particularly his hypothesis that our physical reality is a mathematical structure and his theory of the ultimate multiverse. In a dazzling combination of both popular and groundbreaking science, he not only helps us grasp his often mind-boggling theories, but he also shares with us some of the often surprising triumphs and disappointments that have shaped his life as a scientist. Fascinating from first to last—this is a book that has already prompted the attention and admiration of some of the most prominent scientists and mathematicians.
Download and read online Turing s Cathedral in PDF and EPUB “It is possible to invent a single machine which can be used to compute any computable sequence,” twenty-four-year-old Alan Turing announced in 1936. In Turing’s Cathedral, George Dyson focuses on a small group of men and women, led by John von Neumann at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey, who built one of the first computers to realize Alan Turing’s vision of a Universal Machine. Their work would break the distinction between numbers that mean things and numbers that do things—and our universe would never be the same. Using five kilobytes of memory (the amount allocated to displaying the cursor on a computer desktop of today), they achieved unprecedented success in both weather prediction and nuclear weapons design, while tackling, in their spare time, problems ranging from the evolution of viruses to the evolution of stars. Dyson’s account, both historic and prophetic, sheds important new light on how the digital universe exploded in the aftermath of World War II. The proliferation of both codes and machines was paralleled by two historic developments: the decoding of self-replicating sequences in biology and the invention of the hydrogen bomb. It’s no coincidence that the most destructive and the most constructive of human inventions appeared at exactly the same time. How did code take over the world? In retracing how Alan Turing’s one-dimensional model became John von Neumann’s two-dimensional implementation, Turing’s Cathedral offers a series of provocative suggestions as to where the digital universe, now fully three-dimensional, may be heading next.
Download and read online A new kind of science in PDF and EPUB Challenging the traditional mathematical model of scientific description, a scientist proposes a new dynamic computational approach that utilizes simple codes to generate patterns of ultimate complexity.
Download and read online Chance in PDF and EPUB This is a unique book on how probability affects our everyday lives. It guides the reader in an almost chronological trip through the fascinating and amazing laws of chance, omnipresent in the natural world and in our daily lives. Along the way many fascinating topics are discussed. These include challenging probability paradoxes, "paranormal" coincidences, game odds, and causes and effects. Finally the author discusses possibilities and limitations of learning the laws of a Universe immersed in chance events. This charming book, with its many easy-to-follow mathematical examples, will inform and entertain the scientist and non-scientist alike.
Download and read online Time Reborn in PDF and EPUB In Time Reborn, Lee Smolin, one of our foremost physicists and thinkers offers a radical new view of the nature of time and the cosmos Nothing seems more real than time passing. We experience life itself as a succession of moments. Yet throughout history, the idea that time is an illusion has been a religious and philosophical commonplace. We identify certain truths as 'eternal' constants, from moral principles to the laws of mathematics and nature: these are laws that exist not inside time, but outside it. From Newton and Einstein to today's string theorists and quantum physicists, the widest consensus is that the universe is governed by absolute, timeless laws. In Time Reborn, Lee Smolin argues that this denial of time is holding back both physics, and our understanding of the universe. We need a major revolution in scientific thought: one that embraces the reality of time and places it at the centre of our thinking. E may equal mc squared now, but that wasn't always the case. Similarly, as our understanding of the universe develops, Newton's fundamental laws might not remain so fundamental. Time, Smolin concludes, is not an illusion: it is the best clue we have to fundamental reality. Time Reborn explains how the true nature of time impacts on us, our world, and our universe. 'The strongest dose of clarity in written form to have come along in decades. The implications go far beyond physics, to economics, politics, and personal philosophy. Time Reborn places reality above theory in stronger and clearer terms than ever before, and the result is a path to better theory and potentially to a better society as well. Will no doubt be remembered as one of the essential books of the 21st century' Jaron Lanier [Praise for Lee Smolin's The Trouble With Physics]: 'The best book about contemporary science written for the layman that I have ever read . . . Read this book. Twice' Sunday Times 'Unusually broad and deep . . . his critical judgments are exceptionally penetrating' Roger Penrose 'Brave, uniquely well-informed . . . does a tremendous job' Mail on Sunday Lee Smolin is a theoretical physicist who has made important contributions to the search for quantum gravity. Born in New York City, he was educated at Hampshire College and Harvard University. Since 2001 he is a founding faculty member at Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics. His three earlier books explore philosophical issues raised by contemporary physics and cosmology. They are Life of the Cosmos (1997), Three Roads to Quantum Gravity (2001) and The Trouble with Physics (2006). He lives in Toronto.
Download and read online The Hidden Reality in PDF and EPUB The bestselling author of The Elegant Universe and The Fabric of the Cosmos tackles perhaps the most mind-bending question in modern physics and cosmology: Is our universe the only universe? There was a time when "universe" meant all there is. Everything. Yet, a number of theories are converging on the possibility that our universe may be but one among many parallel universes populating a vast multiverse. Here, Briane Greene, one of our foremost physicists and science writers, takes us on a breathtaking journey to a multiverse comprising an endless series of big bangs, a multiverse with duplicates of every one of us, a multiverse populated by vast sheets of spacetime, a multiverse in which all we consider real are holographic illusions, and even a multiverse made purely of math--and reveals the reality hidden within each. Using his trademark wit and precision, Greene presents a thrilling survey of cutting-edge physics and confronts the inevitable question: How can fundamental science progress if great swaths of reality lie beyond our reach? The Hidden Reality is a remarkable adventure through a world more vast and strange than anything we could have imagined.
Download and read online Scepticism Ant the Foundation of Epistemology in PDF and EPUB The sceptical challenge known as the "problem of the criterion" is one of the major issues in the history of epistemology. This volume provides its first comprehensive study, in a span of time that goes from Sextus Empiricus to Quine.
Download and read online Divine Name Verification An Essay on Anti Darwinism Intelligent Design and the Computational Nature of Reality in PDF and EPUB In this book, Noah Horwitz argues that the age of Darwinism is ending. Building on the ontological insights of his first book Reality in the Name of God in order to intervene into the intelligent design versus evolution debate, Horwitz argues in favor of intelligent design by attempting to demonstrate the essentially computational nature of reality. In doing so, Horwitz draws on the work of many of today's key computational theorists (e.g., Wolfram, Chaitin, Friedkin, Lloyd, Schmidhuber, etc.) and articulates and defends a computational definition of life, and in the process lays out key criticisms of Darwinism. He does so in part by incorporating the insights of the Lamarckian theories of Lynn Margulis and Maximo Sandin. The possible criticisms of a computationalist view from both a developmental perspective (e.g., Lewontin, Jablonka, West-Eberhard, etc.) and chaos theory (e.g., Brian Goodwin) are addressed. In doing so, Horwitz engages critically with the work of intelligent design theorists like William Dembksi. At the same time, he attempts to define the nature of the Speculative Realist turn in contemporary Continental Philosophy and articulates criticisms of leading figures and movements associated with it, such as Object-Oriented Ontology, Quentin Meillassoux, and Ray Brassier. Ultimately, Horwitz attempts to show that rather than heading towards heat death, existence itself will find its own apotheosis at the Omega Point. However, that final glorification is only possible given that all of reality is compressible into the divine name itself.
Download and read online Programming The Universe in PDF and EPUB IN THE BEGINNING WAS THE BIT... The universe is made of bits of information and it has been known for more than a century that every piece of the the universe - every electron, atom and molecule - registers these bits and that information. It is only in the last years, however, with the discovery and development of quantum computers, that scientists have gained a fundamental understanding of just how that information is registered and processed. Building on recent breakthroughs in quantum computation, Seth Lloyd shows how the universe itself is a giant computer. Every atom and elementary particle stores these bits, and every collision between those atoms and particles flips the bits into a new arrangement and effortlessly spins out beautiful and complex systems, including galaxies, planets and life itself. But every computer needs a program, the set of instructions that tell it what patterns to create. Where did the bits come from that tell the universe to create its magnificent complexity? Who - or what - is programming the universe?
Download and read online Shadows of the Mind in PDF and EPUB Presenting a look at the human mind's capacity while criticizing artificial intelligence, the author makes suggestions about classical and quantum physics and the role of microtubules
Download and read online Limits of Computation in PDF and EPUB This textbook discusses the most fundamental and puzzling questions about the foundations of computing. In 23 lecture-sized chapters it provides an exciting tour through the most important results in the field of computability and time complexity, including the Halting Problem, Rice's Theorem, Kleene's Recursion Theorem, the Church-Turing Thesis, Hierarchy Theorems, and Cook-Levin's Theorem. Each chapter contains classroom-tested material, including examples and exercises. Links between adjacent chapters provide a coherent narrative. Fundamental results are explained lucidly by means of programs written in a simple, high-level imperative programming language, which only requires basic mathematical knowledge. Throughout the book, the impact of the presented results on the entire field of computer science is emphasised. Examples range from program analysis to networking, from database programming to popular games and puzzles. Numerous biographical footnotes about the famous scientists who developed the subject are also included. "Limits of Computation" offers a thorough, yet accessible, introduction to computability and complexity for the computer science student of the 21st century.
Download and read online The Bulletin of Symbolic Logic in PDF and EPUB
Download and read online Language Life Limits in PDF and EPUB This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 10th Conference on Computability in Europe, CiE 2014, held in Budapest, Hungary, in June 2014. The 42 revised papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 78 submissions and included together with 15 invited papers in this proceedings. The conference had six special sessions: computational linguistics, bio-inspired computation, history and philosophy of computing, computability theory, online algorithms and complexity in automata theory.
Download and read online Mathematical Theory and Computational Practice in PDF and EPUB